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Tuesday, May 31, 2016

May 5, 1940: HMS Seal Survives


Sunday 5 May 1940

5 May 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com HMS Seal
HMS Seal after capture in Kiel.

Norway: Both sides on 5 May 1940 are now upping their bids on Northern Norway. Central and southern Norway are now solidly German-occupied, but the northernmost third of the country is still up for grabs. It is rugged, largely devoid of roads, and subject to fierce weather, with military supply dependent upon naval or aerial sources - at which the British and French can rightly claim an advantage. The prize is more desirable because, aside from general geographic convenience for U-boat operations and air bases, the only value of Norway to anyone lies in that northern third - the port of Narvik. It is the source of the iron ore which makes the tanks and ships and guns which the Nazi war machine requires.

Norwegian Foreign Minister Professor Koht, and Minister of Defence Col. Ljungberg arrive in London for consultations with British ministers. A Norwegian Government-in-exile is established in London, though the seat of government remains under British/French protection in northern Norway.

Meanwhile, Adolf Hitler has everyone else looking above the Arctic Circle - and he is looking much closer to home.

Norway Army Operations: With food running out and only enough water for a few days, the garrison of Hegra Fortress (26 miles east of Trondheim) knows that its only hope would be relief by external Norwegian/Allied troops. However, there are no longer any potential saviors within a thousand kilometers due to the British/French evacuations and Norwegian surrenders. In fact, Hegra Fortress is the last pocket of resistance south of Nordland. Accordingly, at 05:00, Major Holtermann gives a speech thanking the volunteers - largely local gun club members - and a rendition of the Norwegian national anthem. At 05:25, he raises the white flag over Hegra Fortress. The Germans, led by Hauptmann Giebel, arrive at 06:30. The garrison, totalling 190 men and one woman (nurse Anne Margrethe Bang) is led out later in the day.

Adolf Hitler ultimately orders the Hegra Fortress prisoners' release in recognition of their valor, but not before they are forced to attempt to build a road to replace the bridges that they had blown. Total casualties at Hegra Fortress:

Norwegians:
  • Killed 6
  • Wounded 14
Germans:
  • 150-200 casualties.
German mountain troops advancing north from the Trondheim region continue their march toward Narvik. They reach the vicinity of Mosjoen. However, they are still hundreds of kilometers away from Narvik over rough ground.

The Allied troops near Narvik begin consolidating their positions. Norwegian 6th Infantry Brigade and 7th Infantry Brigade and French 27th Demi-Brigade de Chasseurs capture Elvenes just north of Narvik

Norwegian Air Operations: German aircraft from Norwegian bases fly support missions for General Dietl's troops at Narvik for the first time.

Norway Naval Operations: French Foreign Legionnaires and Polish troops land at Harstad and Tromso, preparing the way for a pincer movement on Narvik. They also can help block any relief attempts.

British submarine HMS Seal begins the day on the ocean floor in the Skagerrak after a mine explodes nearby. The Captain reads the Lord's Prayer to the crew. While damaged, it is intact enough for the men to somehow re-float it (using their very last, unexpected source of air) at 01:30. They head for Swedish waters to be interned, but the submarine can only go in reverse, and then the engine seizes up completely from mud collected on the sea bottom. A Luftwaffe Heinkel He 115 seaplane and two Arado 196s spot her dead in the water at 02:30. The crew surrenders using a white table cloth.

The captain of the Seal, Rupert Lonsdale, swims to the Heinkel to surrender. The crew is saved and HMS Seal (expected by its crew to sink) is taken in tow by the German "UJ 128" (Unterseebootsjäger 128) and brought to the German naval base at Frederikshavn, Denmark. It is about as near-death as a submarine crew can get and still survive - they truly looked death in the face -and one of the epic survival stories of submarine history.

Battle of the Atlantic: German raider Widder leaves Kiel bound for Bergen.

Convoy OG 28 forms at Gibraltar.

British light cruiser HMS Fiji (Captain William G. Benn) is commissioned.

Western Front: The front remains remarkably quiet. There is a report that, during the night, German patrols launched exploratory attacks on three Allied outposts supported by artillery fire, but were driven off.

Journalist William Shirer in Berlin, unlike the Allied intelligence services, notices something unusual going on: "More bans on private cars. Why is Germany saving oil? Do they need it for some big military plan?"

Spies: Ireland is defiantly neutral, but a large body of opinion sees the distraction of a war against Germany as a handy way to pry the British out of the country. Taking advantage of this, the German military intelligence service sends Kapitän Hermann Goertz to Dublin by parachute. He is there to establish contacts with the IRA and sympathetic Irish Army Officers.

Australia: Troop convoy US 3 departs Victoria, bound for Egypt. It is transporting the Australian 18th Infantry Brigade.

Vatican: Pope, Pius XII issues a public anti-war prayer: "Christ, please stop the whirlwind of death which is crushing humanity."

French Homefront: RC Paris defeats Olympique de Marseille 2-1 in the Coupe de France Final.

Future History: Lance Henriksen is born in New York City. He becomes famous as an actor in the 1970s for such films as "Dog Day Afternoon," "Close Encounters of the Third Kind," "Damien: Omen II" and, in the 1980s, "The Terminator" and "Aliens." He remains a working actor as of this writing.

5 May 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com Hegra Fortress
Hauptmann Giebel enters Hegra Fortress to accept the Norwegian surrender, 5 May 1940.

May 1940

May 1, 1940: British Leave Åndalsnes
May 2, 1940: British Depart Namsos
May 3, 1940: Many Norwegians Surrendering
May 4, 1940: Bader Returns
May 5, 1940: HMS Seal Survives
May 6, 1940: Allies Focus on Narvik
May 7, 1940: In The Name of God, Go!
May 8, 1940: Exit Chamberlain
May 9, 1940: Enter Churchill
May 10, 1940: Fall Gelb
May 11, 1940: Eben Emael Surrenders
May 12, 1940: Germans at Sedan
May 13, 1940: Rommel at Work
May 14, 1940: German Breakout in France
May 15, 1940: Holland Surrenders
May 16, 1940: Dash to the Channel
May 17, 1940: Germans Take Brussels
May 18, 1940: Germans Take Antwerp
May 19, 1940: Failed French Counterattack
May 20, 1940: Panzers on the Coast
May 21, 1940: Battle of Arras
May 22, 1940: Attacking Channel Ports
May 23, 1940: British Evacuate Boulogne
May 24, 1940: Hitler's Stop Order
May 25, 1940: Belgian Defenses Creaking
May 26, 1940: Operation Dynamo
May 27, 1940: King Leopold Surrenders 
May 28, 1940: The Allies Take Narvik
May 29, 1940: Lille Falls
May 30, 1940: Operation Fish
May 31, 1940: Peak Day for Dynamo


2016

May 4, 1940: Bader Returns


Saturday 4 May 1940

4 May 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com Heinkel 111 crashed


Norway Army Operations: The allies are accumulating troops in the vicinity of Narvik. There are about 30,000 troops nearby (French Foreign Legion & Chasseurs Alpins [mountain infantry], Polish troops, British 24th Brigade & Norwegians), though in scattered locations to the north and south. The French troops march to Bjerkvik, opposite Narvik, but the Germans hold them at Labergdal Pass.

The British No. 1 Independent Company (special forces) occupies Mo between Namsos and Narvik.

Colonel General Eduard Dietl’s 139th Mountain (Gebirgsjäger) Regiment has been isolated at Narvik since the beginning of the invasion, now almost a month old, and the Wehrmacht senses trouble (and also Hitler). The closest Wehrmacht formation, General Feuerstein’s 2nd Mountain (Gebirgsjäger) Division, begins marching 350 miles to the north to relieve them. The allies have troops at Mosjöen, Mo, and Bodö, and deploy about 300-500 at each along the way to stop or delay the German march.

The German 359th Infantry Brigade enters Namsos now that the Allies are evacuated.

At Hegra Fortress, the surrounded Norwegian volunteers begin destroying radios, machine guns, small arms and other items of value. Ski patrols leave carrying important documents and messages.

North of Trondheim, the Norwegian 5th Infantry Brigade surrenders its 2,000 troops.

Norway Naval Operations: The Royal Navy lands troops at Mo, south of Narvik.

British submarine HMS Seal is laying mines on the surface in the Kattegat at 02:30 when it is spotted by a Heinkel He 115 seaplane. The submarine dives to 30 feet and continues laying mines. German anti-submarine trawlers arrive. Seal takes evasive action throughout the day, but then at 18:30 strikes a mine and settles on the bottom. The submarine does not flood, but it is stuck in the mud on the bottom and in big trouble.

German troops capture Norwegian submarine B-6.

Norway Air Operations: A Luftwaffe Heinkel He 111 of KG 100 bombs the Polish destroyer Grom on her torpedo tubes in the fjord Rombaken off Narvik at 08:28. The Grom was bombarding German positions along with destroyer HMS Faulknor, which picks up the survivors quickly along with light cruisers HMS Enterprise (D 52) and HMS Aurora (12) and destroyer HMS Bedouin (F 67). There are 154 survivors and 59 perish, with the crew put on a hospital ship sailing for the Clyde.

Battle of the Atlantic: British 5,995 ton tanker San Tiburcio hits a mine and sinks four miles off Tarbett Ness, Moray Firth, Scotland. All 40 crew survive. The mine was laid by U-9 on February 10, 1940.

Royal Navy submarine HMS Severn sinks German freighter Monark in the North Sea.

Swedish freighter Aimy hits a mine and sinks. The mine was laid by Royal Navy submarine HMS Seal.

Convoy OA 142 departs from Southend, Convoy OB 142 departs from Liverpool, Convoy HG 29F departs from Gibraltar, and Convoy HX 40 departs from Halifax.

Spies: The Papal Nuncio warns King Leopold of Belgium that the Germans are preparing to attack.

4 May 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com Douglas Bader
Douglas Bader.

RAF: Douglas Bader, a fighter pilot who lost his legs in a crash in 1931, has been fitted with metal legs and is flying missions. In some small ways, such as handling G-forces, his situation helps him. His story is well known by pilots on both sides and is quite inspirational.

Holland: The Dutch Premier announces that the military authorities have arrested 21 people as being a danger to the state. They are suspected saboteurs and Nazi infiltrators ("fifth columnists").

Italy: There is an editorial in La Stampa which states that the Germans have demonstrated their invincibility in Norway and can defeat the British and occupy England.

American Homefront: Gallahadion wins the Kentucky Derby.

4 May 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com LA Times Luftwaffe factory
Americans are mildly curious about all that Nazi business, as shown by this photo in the 4 May 1940 LA Times. It's just a guess, but those look like Heinkel He 111s.

May 1940

May 1, 1940: British Leave Åndalsnes
May 2, 1940: British Depart Namsos
May 3, 1940: Many Norwegians Surrendering
May 4, 1940: Bader Returns
May 5, 1940: HMS Seal Survives
May 6, 1940: Allies Focus on Narvik
May 7, 1940: In The Name of God, Go!
May 8, 1940: Exit Chamberlain
May 9, 1940: Enter Churchill
May 10, 1940: Fall Gelb
May 11, 1940: Eben Emael Surrenders
May 12, 1940: Germans at Sedan
May 13, 1940: Rommel at Work
May 14, 1940: German Breakout in France
May 15, 1940: Holland Surrenders
May 16, 1940: Dash to the Channel
May 17, 1940: Germans Take Brussels
May 18, 1940: Germans Take Antwerp
May 19, 1940: Failed French Counterattack
May 20, 1940: Panzers on the Coast
May 21, 1940: Battle of Arras
May 22, 1940: Attacking Channel Ports
May 23, 1940: British Evacuate Boulogne
May 24, 1940: Hitler's Stop Order
May 25, 1940: Belgian Defenses Creaking
May 26, 1940: Operation Dynamo
May 27, 1940: King Leopold Surrenders 
May 28, 1940: The Allies Take Narvik
May 29, 1940: Lille Falls
May 30, 1940: Operation Fish
May 31, 1940: Peak Day for Dynamo



May 3, 1940: Many Norwegians Surrendering


Friday 3 May 1940

3 May 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com improvised German runway
German troops and bombers on an improvised airfield during the battle for Norway, May 3, 1940 (Wide World Photo).

Norway: The British/French tilt away from the Trondheim target is a serious tell-tale sign for the direction of the entire Norwegian campaign on 3 May 1940. The Allies at this point have no hope of prevailing against Germany on the Continent in any kind of mobile warfare setting except in artificial frames such as island conflicts. Narvik provides a last gasp as an opportunity for the Allies only because, for all intents and purposes, it is an island: it is difficult to reach by land due to numerous geographical barriers and lack of roads, it has a small population and the best way to reach it with military support is via ship (military supplies cannot be sent on the rail line through neutral Sweden).

In fact, the British arguably have a slight advantage in some ways in a Narvik campaign. The British Home Fleet not only completely outclasses anything that the Kriegsmarine can put in action, but its main base at Scapa Flow, Scotland is closer to Narvik than any German ports. Conceivably, the Allies could occupy northern Norway indefinitely - so long as nothing else comes up diverting scarce resources somewhere else.

King Haakon and the rest of the Norwegian government and Commander-in-chief Otto Ruge are under British protection just south of Navik at Tromsø. There is a 1000km (600 mile) buffer zone between them and the German troops further south.

The sense of hopelessness among the few active Norwegian forces remaining in the country is exacerbated by a radio broadcast by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain announcing the evacuation of Allied troops from the Trondheim region.

Norway Army Operations: The evacuation of British (1850) and French (2345) troops, along with some Norwegian troops and 30 Wehrmacht POWs, is finished before dawn. General de Wiart is grateful: "The Navy promised to evacuate my troops tonight. I thought it impossible, but the Navy do not know the word."

Colonel Ole Berg Getz—the Norwegian commander in the Trøndelag area - announces in his order of the day that he has proposed an armistice due to his lack of supplies, particularly ammunition. He broadcasts his surrender of troops in Nord-Trøndelag during the day, and advises all other Norwegian forces in Trøndelag to do the same.

Norwegian General Jacob Hvinden-Haug throws in the towel and surrenders all troops south of Trondheim. All fighting south of Trondheim in essence is over except for holdouts.

The commander of one of those holdouts, Hegra Fortress, realizes from radio reports and its own situation that the end is at hand. Food is running out, and there is no hope of relief. The garrison begins destroying it artillery ammunition. Three Swedish volunteers are taken out of the fortress and escorted by a ski patrol to the Swedish border.

Norway Naval Operations: Destroyer HMS Alfridi lingers at Namsos after the evacuation convoy leaves, shelling the dock and other port facilities before finally departing at 04:45.

The Allied troops evacuated from Åndalsnes arrive safely in Scapa Flow. The French transit to French passenger liners bound for Brest to aid in the defense of their own country.

Norway Air Operations: The Luftwaffe attacks the Namsos evacuation convoy at 09:45, sinking French destroyer Bison about 110 miles west of Vega Island, Norway at 10:10. There are 103 deaths - but many also wind up on HMS Alfridi, which also goes down.

Alfridi is bombed at 14:00 and also goes down quickly (45 minutes), with numerous deaths (45 crew, 13 men of 146th Brigade, and 30 of the 69 men just rescued from the Bison). Elderly General de Wiart - legendary escape-artist from hopeless predicaments - is forlorn: "I'm sorry I wasn't on board - I've missed a great experience!"

The Luftwaffe attacks British battleship HMS Resolution and Cruisers Aurora and Effingham off Narvik.

Western Front: Hitler is hard at work on Fall Gelb, the invasion of France and the Low Countries, and now is at the fine-tuning stage. He postpones the date from 5 May to 6 May, the small change showing how close the actuality is getting. He is assembling 93 Divisions along the border without the Allies apparently noticing.

Hitler sees the entire world up for grabs: "The earth is a challenge cup: it goes to those who deserve it.…"

French General Huntziger commands the 2nd Army on the Ardennes front. He is offended by the construction without his approval of anti-tank obstacles on two main roads through the forest and orders them demolished.

European Air Operations: The RAF bombs Oslo-Fornebu airfield, Stavanger-Sola, and Ry airfield in northern Denmark.

Three Luftwaffe fighters ambush a British reconnaissance plane over Borkum, losing one of their own number.

RAF bomber command sends 10 aircraft out on minelaying operations during the night. The Luftwaffe also conducts minelaying.

Convoy OA 141 departs from Southend, Convoy OB 141 departs from Liverpool.

Battle of the Atlantic: German commerce raider Atlantis is travelling in the south Atlantic disguised as Japanese freighter Kasii Maru. It spots British freighter Scientist near Walvis Bay on its way to Freetown, boards it, and then sinks it with a torpedo. There are three deaths.

Spies: Colonel Hans Oster of the German military intelligence service, the Abwehr, tells the Dutch military attaché in Berlin, Colonel Sas, that Fall Gelb is close, perhaps ready by 8 May. Unfortunately for Oster, his credibility has been undermined by previous postponements subsequent to his alerts. The neutral Dutch decide not to pass this information along to the Allies.

Applied Science: The Wehrmacht seizes control of the world's only heavy water production facility Vermork outside Rjukan in Tinn, Norway.

Greenland: The Danish crown colony takes a different route than Iceland, which earlier had declared independence. It seeks US protection to maintain its Danish sovereignty without German domination.

China: At the Battle of Tsaoyang-Ichang, the Japanese 11th Army captures Changshouien and Tienchiachi.

British Homefront: Industrialist Sir Alfred Edward Herbert, a huge advocate of women workers during World War I (along with minimum wages and maximum working hours), encourages women to sign up for factory work "at this grave time."

3 May 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com Vermork heavy water plant
The Vermork hydroelectric plant in 1935.

May 1940

May 1, 1940: British Leave Åndalsnes
May 2, 1940: British Depart Namsos
May 3, 1940: Many Norwegians Surrendering
May 4, 1940: Bader Returns
May 5, 1940: HMS Seal Survives
May 6, 1940: Allies Focus on Narvik
May 7, 1940: In The Name of God, Go!
May 8, 1940: Exit Chamberlain
May 9, 1940: Enter Churchill
May 10, 1940: Fall Gelb
May 11, 1940: Eben Emael Surrenders
May 12, 1940: Germans at Sedan
May 13, 1940: Rommel at Work
May 14, 1940: German Breakout in France
May 15, 1940: Holland Surrenders
May 16, 1940: Dash to the Channel
May 17, 1940: Germans Take Brussels
May 18, 1940: Germans Take Antwerp
May 19, 1940: Failed French Counterattack
May 20, 1940: Panzers on the Coast
May 21, 1940: Battle of Arras
May 22, 1940: Attacking Channel Ports
May 23, 1940: British Evacuate Boulogne
May 24, 1940: Hitler's Stop Order
May 25, 1940: Belgian Defenses Creaking
May 26, 1940: Operation Dynamo
May 27, 1940: King Leopold Surrenders 
May 28, 1940: The Allies Take Narvik
May 29, 1940: Lille Falls
May 30, 1940: Operation Fish
May 31, 1940: Peak Day for Dynamo


2016

Monday, May 30, 2016

May 2, 1940: British Depart Namsos


Thursday 2 May 1940

2 May 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com German mountain troops
German mountain troops landing at Trondheim Airport, Værnes, 2 May 1940.

Norway: The British and French are evacuating their tenuous positions near Trondheim on 2 May 1940, but that does not mean that they are abandoning Norway altogether. In fact, the emphasis is just shifting further north, to the key to the entire invasion in the first place: Narvik. This new operation will be calls Scissors Force. It will be led by General Colin Gubbins.

General Gubbins has been raising "Independent Companies." These are embryonic Commandos, or Special Forces. The plan is for him to use four or five of these Independent Companies to take and hold Narvik while also taking and holding Bodø, Mo i Rana and Mosjøen.

Prime Minister Chamberlain tells the House that Norway is not a "sideshow" nor a "Quixotic adventure."

Norway Army Operations: The evacuation of General de Wiart's Maurice Force troops (British 146th Infantry Brigade, French 5th Demi-Brigade de Chasseurs) at Namsos is completed. Lord Mountbatten leads in four destroyers, and is joined by Vice Admiral John Cunningham with 3 cruisers, 5 destroyers and 3 transports.

The German 196th Infantry Division takes Åndalsnes around 16:00, which had been evacuated by the British Sickle Force troops on 1 May. The British take off 4,400 men, but leave behind much equipment in the devastated town. With this force gone, the Allied presence in Norway now has been halved.

The Germans seize control of the Dovrebanen railway line from Dombås to Støren.

The German 69th Infantry Division meets the German 163rd Infantry Division midway between Oslo and Bergen.

The Norwegians at Hegra Fortress hear radio reports of surrenders and evacuations elsewhere and consider their alternatives. Bread has now run out, and no resupply is forthcoming.

There is fighting in the Narvik area.

Norway Naval Operations:  Junkers Ju 87 Stukas attack the destroyer convoy which is arriving to take off the British 146th Brigade and associated French troops from Namsos. They sink  French destroyers Afridi and Bison and damage via near miss HMS Maori (5 perish, 18 wounded). The flotilla stays offshore and finally comes in when heavy evening fog arrives to hide it from the Luftwaffe. The destroyers ferry about 5,350 men to the cruisers and transports after dark.

Norway Air Operations: RAF Bomber Command attacks Stavanger Airfield both during the day and at night. It also attacks Oslo airfield after dark.

European Air Operations: RAF Bomber Command attacks Rye Airfield in Denmark both during the day and at night.

The RAF sends 26 bombers to lay mines during the night in the North Sea.

Battle of the Atlantic: Convoy OA 140G departs from Southend, and Convoy OB 140 departs from Liverpool.

Western Front: Having masterfully led the Allies to focus on Norway, Hitler and the Wehrmacht High Command start assembling troops for Fall Gelb, the invasion of France and the Low Countries. The attack will be led by 93 front-line divisions, 10 of them armoured and 6 motorised. The main thrust will be through the Ardennes forest, with a subsidiary decoy thrust to the north through Holland.

German/Swedish Relations: The Swedes had sent their crown jewels to Norway for safekeeping during the Winter War. Now, they open secret talks with the Germans to get them back.

US Navy: Lieutenant Commander Edward Henry “Butch” O’Hare finishes his flight training at NAS Pensacola, Florida and is assigned to USS Saratoga (CV-3) Fighter Squadron Three (VF-3).

New Zealand: A New Zealand troop convoy departs from Wellington to Australia.

Egypt: Prime Minister Chamberlain announces that a British/French combined fleet is in the Mediterranean and en route to Alexandria.

Holocaust: SS-Hauptsturmführer (captain) Rudolf Höss arrives at Auschwitz prison camp near the town of Oświęcim in western Poland. He will be its first commandant. His orders are "to create a transition camp for ten thousand prisoners from the existing complex of well-preserved buildings." Höss has had experience at Sachsenhausen concentration camp and is determined to make this new camp run with extreme efficiency.

2 May 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com German rail transport
German troops arriving by rail in northern Norway as the British depart, 2 May 1940.

May 1940

May 1, 1940: British Leave Åndalsnes
May 2, 1940: British Depart Namsos
May 3, 1940: Many Norwegians Surrendering
May 4, 1940: Bader Returns
May 5, 1940: HMS Seal Survives
May 6, 1940: Allies Focus on Narvik
May 7, 1940: In The Name of God, Go!
May 8, 1940: Exit Chamberlain
May 9, 1940: Enter Churchill
May 10, 1940: Fall Gelb
May 11, 1940: Eben Emael Surrenders
May 12, 1940: Germans at Sedan
May 13, 1940: Rommel at Work
May 14, 1940: German Breakout in France
May 15, 1940: Holland Surrenders
May 16, 1940: Dash to the Channel
May 17, 1940: Germans Take Brussels
May 18, 1940: Germans Take Antwerp
May 19, 1940: Failed French Counterattack
May 20, 1940: Panzers on the Coast
May 21, 1940: Battle of Arras
May 22, 1940: Attacking Channel Ports
May 23, 1940: British Evacuate Boulogne
May 24, 1940: Hitler's Stop Order
May 25, 1940: Belgian Defenses Creaking
May 26, 1940: Operation Dynamo
May 27, 1940: King Leopold Surrenders 
May 28, 1940: The Allies Take Narvik
May 29, 1940: Lille Falls
May 30, 1940: Operation Fish
May 31, 1940: Peak Day for Dynamo


2016

Saturday, May 28, 2016

May 1, 1940: British Leave Åndalsnes


Wednesday 1 May 1940

1 May 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com Panzer factory
German Panzer Factory, 1 May 1940. They appear to be making Panzer IIs (Ang, Federal Archive).
Norway: King Haakon, Prime Minister Nygaardsvold, the Crown Prince and the remainder of the Norwegian government arrive in Tromso aboard the Royal Navy cruiser HMS Glasgow.

The British give up at Åndalsnes. During their presence, they lost 1301 killed, missing or captured. Norwegian Commander-in-chief Otto Ruge take the HMS Diana from Åndalsnes to Tromsø to join the king and rest of the government.

Norway Army Operations: It is a miserable day for the British 15th Brigade, which suffered heavily south of Dombås. Their train to Åndalsnes derails at a bomb crater at 01:15. There are 8 dead, 30 wounded. The men then have to walk the remaining 17 miles through deep snow in order to reach the port at 09:00.

The British troops, both 15th Brigade and 148th Brigade, leave Andalsnes that evening on a flotilla of destroyers and cruisers under Vice Admiral Geoffrey Layton. Destroyers HMS Inglefield (D 02), HMS Diana (H 49), and HMS Delight (H 38) take troops to the light cruisers HMS Manchester and HMS Birmingham.  While 5,084 servicemen are taken off, much equipment is left behind. The British are gone by 2 a.m. on 2 May 1940. The Germans do not immediately notice the departure.

Commander Lord Louis Mountbatten brings his 4 destroyers into Namsos and to take off General de Wiart’s 146th Brigade. Fog in the harbor limits the evacuees to the 850 men of the French Chasseurs Alpins.

About 4,000 Norwegian troops trapped at Lillehammer surrender.

The German 3rd Mountain Division under General Dietl counterattacks at Narvik.

German forces at Oslo and Bergen link up. Norwegian General William Steffens, who previously evacuated Voss and had set up his headquarters at Førde, disbands his troops. About 3,500 Norwegian 4th Infantry Brigade troops surrender, but the Germans allow them to simply disband and go home. Steffens leaves during the night for Tromsø with three naval aircraft. This effectively ends the campaign in southwest Norway, though there are still some Norwegian troops here and there who are un-noticed and remain active.

Norway Air Operations: The Germans transfer a battalion of the 2nd Mountain Division from Denmark to Trondheim by air.

The RAF sends a dozen bombers to attack Stavagner-Sola airfield during the day, then more aircraft to attack the same airfield and also Oslo during the night.

The Luftwaffe continues its attacks on the British-held ports in northern Norway. Stukas sink the anti-submarine trawler HMS St. Goran. The Stukas also hit Royal Navy sloop HMS Bittern at Namsos and set it ablaze.

Norway Naval Operations: British submarine HMS Narwhal (Lt. Commander Ronald J. Burch) spots a German merchant convoy in the Kattegat about 20 miles north of Anholt, Denmark. It fires six torpedoes at the convoy. The convoy is carrying units of the 2nd Gebirgsjager Division to Norway. The Narwhal torpedoes and sinks one troop transport, the Buenos Aires (62 men and 240 horses killed), and torpedoes a second, the Bahia Castillo (10 men, 26 horses killed).

The Norwegian ships in western Norway are ordered to evacuate either to Great Britain or northern Norway. Only two do so, the auxiliary Bjerk sailed to the United Kingdom and Steinar to Northern Norway. The other Norwegian ships either have too few crew left to sail, or their commanders simply tell the men to go home.

Battle of the Atlantic: The 1,296 ton Swedish freighter Haga hits a mine laid by British submarine HMS Narwhal in the Skagerrak east of Cape Skagen.

European Air Operations: During the night, the RAF bombs Aalborg airfield in Denmark.

The RAF sends other planes to drop mines during the night.

The Luftwaffe drops mines along the British coast.

Swedish freighter Haga strikes a mine and sinks.

Convoy OA 139 departs from Southend, Convoy SL 30 departs from Freetown, Convoy OG 28F forms at Gibraltar.

Western Front: Hitler is done waiting to invade France and the Low Countries and wants Fall Gelb to being as soon as possible. He sets a tentative start date of 5 May 1940.

Hitler is goaded on by public opinion, as expressed by journalist William Shirer broadcasting from Berlin: "What kind of war is this, where the world's two greatest armies stand facing but refrain from killing?" He recalls a typical scene: "200 yards from the Rhine, in sight of a French blockhouse, German soldiers play football."

British Military: The Military Coordination Committee (MCC) is reorganized in such a fashion as to give its leader (in the absence of Prime Minister Chamberlain) Winston Churchill more direct control over all military operations. General Ismay becomes Churchill's chief staff officer at the MCC.

German Military: General Johannes Blaskowitz takes over command of German 9th Army.

US Military: The US Navy establishes a naval air station in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

German Government: The government designates a Krupp armaments plant at Essen as a "National Socialist model plant."

Holocaust: The Germans seal off the Lodz Ghetto. The German authorities tell the Council of Elders that they will supply the 230,000 captives with food only if they become a "useful workforce."

SS-Hauptsturmführer (captain) Rudolf Höss is appointed first commandant of Auschwitz prison camp near the town of Oświęcim in western Poland.

Ireland: The government refuses a British offer of a "defense alliance." It re-asserts its neutrality and calls upon the US to guarantee it.

China: At the Battle of Tsaoyang-Ichang, the Japanese 11th Army opens and offensive from Hsinyang, Sui Hsien, and Chunghsiang toward Tsaoyang and rice granary areas in Hupei province, advancing in five columns. This is a typical Japanese "rice offensive."

The 11th Army quickly captures Mingkang, Lion's bridge, and Hsiaolintien. The Japanese Army Air Force 3rd Air Brigade, based at Hankow (Wuhan), provides air support for 11th Army during the Tsaoyang-Ichang operation.

1 May 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com USS Quincy
The U.S. Navy heavy cruiser USS Quincy (CA-39) underway on 1 May 1940, as seen from a Utility Squadron 1 (VU-1) aircraft. Note the identification markings on her turret tops: longitudinal stripes on the forward turrets and a circle on the after one. (By USN - Official U.S. Navy photo NH-97697 from the U.S. Navy Naval History and Heritage Command, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=39422422).

April 1940

April 1, 1940: Weserubung is a Go
April 2, 1940: British Subs On Alert
April 3, 1940: Churchill Consolidates Power
April 4, 1940: Missed the Bus
April 5, 1940: Mig-1 First Flight
April 6, 1940: Troops Sailing to Norway
April 7, 1940: Fleets At Sea
April 8, 1940: HMS Glowworm and Admiral Hipper
April 9, 1940: Invasion of Norway
April 10, 1940: First Battle of Narvik
April 11, 1940: Britain Takes the Faroes
April 12, 1940: Germans Consolidate in Norway
April 13, 1940: 2d Battle of Narvik
April 14, 1940: Battle of Dombås
April 15, 1940: British in Norway
April 16, 1940: Germans Cut Norway in Half
April 17, 1940: Trondheim the Target
April 18, 1940: Norway Declares War
April 19, 1940: Dombås Battle Ends
April 20, 1940: Germans Advancing in Norway
April 21, 1940: First US Military Casualty
April 22, 1940: First British Military Contact with Germans
April 23, 1940: British Retreating in Norway
April 24, 1940: British Bombard Narvik
April 25, 1940: Norwegian Air Battles
April 26, 1940: Norwegian Gold
April 27, 1940: Allies to Evacuate Norway
April 28, 1940: Prepared Piano
April 29, 1940: British at Bodo
April 30, 1940: Clacton-on-Sea Heinkel

May 1940

May 1, 1940: British Leave Åndalsnes
May 2, 1940: British Depart Namsos
May 3, 1940: Many Norwegians Surrendering
May 4, 1940: Bader Returns
May 5, 1940: HMS Seal Survives
May 6, 1940: Allies Focus on Narvik
May 7, 1940: In The Name of God, Go!
May 8, 1940: Exit Chamberlain
May 9, 1940: Enter Churchill
May 10, 1940: Fall Gelb
May 11, 1940: Eben Emael Surrenders
May 12, 1940: Germans at Sedan
May 13, 1940: Rommel at Work
May 14, 1940: German Breakout in France
May 15, 1940: Holland Surrenders
May 16, 1940: Dash to the Channel
May 17, 1940: Germans Take Brussels
May 18, 1940: Germans Take Antwerp
May 19, 1940: Failed French Counterattack
May 20, 1940: Panzers on the Coast
May 21, 1940: Battle of Arras
May 22, 1940: Attacking Channel Ports
May 23, 1940: British Evacuate Boulogne
May 24, 1940: Hitler's Stop Order
May 25, 1940: Belgian Defenses Creaking
May 26, 1940: Operation Dynamo
May 27, 1940: King Leopold Surrenders 
May 28, 1940: The Allies Take Narvik
May 29, 1940: Lille Falls
May 30, 1940: Operation Fish
May 31, 1940: Peak Day for Dynamo

2016

Friday, May 27, 2016

April 30, 1940: Clacton-on-Sea Heinkel


Tuesday 30 April 1940

30 April 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com Clacton-on-Sea Heinkel
The Clacton Heinkel.

Norway: Hitler is pleased with the progress of Operation Weserubung and issues a congratulatory Order of the Day on 30 April 1940.

General Otto Ruge issues a somewhat different statement:
"Allied forces are withdrawing from Romsdal and presumably Namsos. The situation has thus been changed. A military collapse is to be expected in Gudbrandsdalen, Romsdal and Trondelag. The Government and Army High Command are transferring to Northern Norway."
Norway Army Operations: The British at Andalsnes begin evacuating during the night. The British 15th Brigade at Dombås are given the order to retire after holding there all day against German attacks. The 15th leaves by train for Andalsnes, where they will be evacuated. At 17:00, cruisers HMS Manchester & Birmingham and destroyers HMS Inglefield, Diana and Delight, under Vice Admiral Layton, depart Scapa Flow for this mission.

General de Wiart's troops at Namsos are also waiting to be evacuated by the destroyer force that is en route from Scapa Flow.

The Germans of the 196th Infantry Division occupy Dombås and make contact with German troops of the 359th Infantry Regiment south of Trondheim. They are on foot because they have had to leave their vehicles behind the bridges that the British demolished.

The Germans coming west from the Osterdal link up with their comrades at Dragset.

Narvik is the new focus of Allied operations in Norway. Norwegian 6th Infantry Brigade, 7th Infantry Brigade and French 27th Demi-Brigade de Chasseurs are slowly advancing toward Narvik from the north.

30 April 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com Clacton-on-Sea Heinkel
Devastation caused by the Clacton-on-Sea Heinkel.

European Air Operations: During minelaying operations, a Heinkel He 111 which is carrying a magnetic mine is damaged by anti-aircraft. After trying to crash-land safely, it crashes into a suburban neighborhood at Clacton-on-Sea, Essex. It explodes and causes the deaths of the four-man crew, two civilians, 156 injured civilians, and the destruction of 50 houses.

The RAF bombs Stavanger and Oslo-Fornebu airfields overnight, and they also attack Aalborg airfield in Denmark. The RAF wants to minimize disruptions of the evacuations.

Two British aircraft carriers, HMS Ark Royal and Glorious, provide some air cover. The Luftwaffe goes out to attack them, and they are forced to retreat further off the coast.

Anti-submarine trawler HMS Warwickshire is sunk by the Luftwaffe off Trondheim.

Battle of the Atlantic: Monthly April 1940 shipping losses:
  • 58 Allied Ships
  • 158,218 tons
  • 5 U-boats sunk
The Luftwaffe sinks Royal Navy anti-aircraft sloop Bittern off Namsos. Stukas dive-bomb it and set it on fire in the stern. There are 20 lives lost. A nearby destroyer, HMS Janus, rescues the crew and then torpedoes the flaming hulk. Admiral Forbes is being proved correct about the unwise decision of using ships to provide anti-aircraft defense.

Royal Navy minesweeper HMS Dunoon hits a mine and sinks off Great Yarmouth near Smith's Knoll. There are 27 lives lost.

Kriegsmarine torpedo boat Leopard is involved in a collision in the Skagerrak and sinks.

French destroyer Maille Breze has two of its own torpedoes explode and destroy it in the Clyde. There are 25 deaths, 48 wounded.

Convoy OB 139 departs from Liverpool, Convoy SL 30 departs from Freetown, and Convoy HX 39 departs from Halifax.

Minesweeping trawler HMS Fir (J. W. H. Whitelaw) is commissioned.

US Military: The Norwegian tanker Willy catches fire in the Cooper River at Charleston, South Carolina. If allowed to burn, it could have destroyed the ship and the Charleston pier. The Commandant of the Sixth Naval District organizes a team that extinguishes the fire.

US/Italian Relations: President Roosevelt sends Mussolini a personal telegram that begins, "My dear Signor Mussolini."

30 April 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com Chaffee Missouri
 High wind damage in the first block of Elliott Street in Chaffee, Mo., on the day after a tornado struck about 5:35 p.m. on April 30, 1940.

April 1940

April 1, 1940: Weserubung is a Go
April 2, 1940: British Subs On Alert
April 3, 1940: Churchill Consolidates Power
April 4, 1940: Missed the Bus
April 5, 1940: Mig-1 First Flight
April 6, 1940: Troops Sailing to Norway
April 7, 1940: Fleets At Sea
April 8, 1940: HMS Glowworm and Admiral Hipper
April 9, 1940: Invasion of Norway
April 10, 1940: First Battle of Narvik
April 11, 1940: Britain Takes the Faroes
April 12, 1940: Germans Consolidate in Norway
April 13, 1940: 2d Battle of Narvik
April 14, 1940: Battle of Dombås
April 15, 1940: British in Norway
April 16, 1940: Germans Cut Norway in Half
April 17, 1940: Trondheim the Target
April 18, 1940: Norway Declares War
April 19, 1940: Dombås Battle Ends
April 20, 1940: Germans Advancing in Norway
April 21, 1940: First US Military Casualty
April 22, 1940: First British Military Contact with Germans
April 23, 1940: British Retreating in Norway
April 24, 1940: British Bombard Narvik
April 25, 1940: Norwegian Air Battles
April 26, 1940: Norwegian Gold
April 27, 1940: Allies to Evacuate Norway
April 28, 1940: Prepared Piano
April 29, 1940: British at Bodo
April 30, 1940: Clacton-on-Sea Heinkel

May 1940

May 1, 1940: British Leave Åndalsnes
May 2, 1940: British Depart Namsos
May 3, 1940: Many Norwegians Surrendering
May 4, 1940: Bader Returns
May 5, 1940: HMS Seal Survives
May 6, 1940: Allies Focus on Narvik
May 7, 1940: In The Name of God, Go!
May 8, 1940: Exit Chamberlain
May 9, 1940: Enter Churchill
May 10, 1940: Fall Gelb
May 11, 1940: Eben Emael Surrenders
May 12, 1940: Germans at Sedan
May 13, 1940: Rommel at Work
May 14, 1940: German Breakout in France
May 15, 1940: Holland Surrenders
May 16, 1940: Dash to the Channel
May 17, 1940: Germans Take Brussels
May 18, 1940: Germans Take Antwerp
May 19, 1940: Failed French Counterattack
May 20, 1940: Panzers on the Coast
May 21, 1940: Battle of Arras
May 22, 1940: Attacking Channel Ports
May 23, 1940: British Evacuate Boulogne
May 24, 1940: Hitler's Stop Order
May 25, 1940: Belgian Defenses Creaking
May 26, 1940: Operation Dynamo
May 27, 1940: King Leopold Surrenders 
May 28, 1940: The Allies Take Narvik
May 29, 1940: Lille Falls
May 30, 1940: Operation Fish
May 31, 1940: Peak Day for Dynamo



2016

April 29, 1940: British at Bodo


Monday 29 April 1940

29 April 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com Haakon Molde
King Haakon and Crown Prince Olav take cover in Molde during a Luftwaffe raid.

Norway: King Haakon catches a ride on HMS Glasgow from Molde to Tromso on 29 April 1940. It also takes Crown Prince Olav, Prime Minister Nygaardsvold, and much of the rest of the Norwegian government. The government issues a statement condemning German "terrorism" which they claim to have witnessed first-hand against civilians. The portion of the Norwegian gold reserves that have not been transported to England goes with them.

Like other British-held ports, Molde is in flames due to Luftwaffe attacks. The royals and other Norwegians have to board the ship by running across a burning pier.

Despite this cooperation, Anglo/Norwegians are strained at all levels. The Norwegians feel that the British are acting in high-handed fashion, such as by not telling them about the decision to evacuate. There are tales of British soldiers acting imperiously: "British officers behave with the arrogance of Prussians, demanding food at gunpoint."

29 April 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com Churchill


Norway Army Operations: While the British have decided to evacuate, they are still tinkering with their strategy. They land troops at Bodo in the north. It is convenient to have if the objective is Narvik.

The British 15th Infantry Brigade holds Dombås through the day. The German troops pursuing them are delayed by British demolitions. Oberst Fischer’s Kampfgruppe, composed mainly of the 196th Division, completes its bypass of the British blocking action. It moves from the Østerdal valley to link up with German troops from Trondheim. This effectively hems the British in on the east.

The Germans at Steinkjer launch probing attacks against the British concentrated at Namsos.

The Germans at Hegra bring in fresh troops. They now ramp up the artillery assault, using captured Norwegian 12 cm (4.7 in) howitzers from the armoury in Trondheim.

East of Lillehammer, 3,700 troops of the Norwegian 2nd Infantry Division surrender.

Norway Naval Operations: A British destroyer force (HMS Kelly, Maori and Imperial, plus French destroyer Bison which isunder Commander Lord Louis Mountbatten) departs from Scapa Flow. Its mission is to evacuate Namsos.

Norwegian Air Operations: The Luftwaffe launches attacks at Andalsnes, the site of a large British base, and Molde, where King Haakon and the Norwegian government have been recently.

The Luftwaffe attacks Norwegian hospital ship Brand IV off Aalesund.

The Luftwaffe sinks Royal Navy anti-submarine trawlers Cape Chelyuskin and Cape Siretoko off Norway.

Battle of the Atlantic: U-50 is sunk by British destroyers HMS Amazon and HMS Witherington off the Shetlands.

British submarine HMS Unity is lost when SS Atle Jarl runs into it at Blyth Harbour in heavy fog. There are four lives lost. Lieutenant John Low and Able Seaman Henry Miller help other men to get out and are given posthumous medals.

The Kriegsmarine lays mines in the North Sea.

Convoy HG 28 departs from Gibraltar.

BEF: The British 1st Tank Brigade moves to France.

RAF: The Empire Air Training Program gets under way at training schools in Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

Anglo/US Relations: The US government has not received a satisfactory response from the British about the seizure of German engineers from the Panamanian ship Don Juan at Port Said on 5 September 1940. However, it closes the incident “on the assumption that similar incidents will not be permitted to occur in the future."

France: Prime Minister Paul Reynaud offers old war hero Henri Petain a cabinet post as Minister of State.

War Crimes: Over 20,000 Poles have been shot during the purge known as the Katyn Forest Massacre, led by Vasily Blokhin, who personally has shot over 7,000, or 250/night.

British Homefront: All sorts of basic commodities, such as toilet paper, are now rationed and highly sought after on the black market.

29 April 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com Blokhin
Vasily Blokhin's tomb at the Novodevichy Cemetery. 

April 1940

April 1, 1940: Weserubung is a Go
April 2, 1940: British Subs On Alert
April 3, 1940: Churchill Consolidates Power
April 4, 1940: Missed the Bus
April 5, 1940: Mig-1 First Flight
April 6, 1940: Troops Sailing to Norway
April 7, 1940: Fleets At Sea
April 8, 1940: HMS Glowworm and Admiral Hipper
April 9, 1940: Invasion of Norway
April 10, 1940: First Battle of Narvik
April 11, 1940: Britain Takes the Faroes
April 12, 1940: Germans Consolidate in Norway
April 13, 1940: 2d Battle of Narvik
April 14, 1940: Battle of Dombås
April 15, 1940: British in Norway
April 16, 1940: Germans Cut Norway in Half
April 17, 1940: Trondheim the Target
April 18, 1940: Norway Declares War
April 19, 1940: Dombås Battle Ends
April 20, 1940: Germans Advancing in Norway
April 21, 1940: First US Military Casualty
April 22, 1940: First British Military Contact with Germans
April 23, 1940: British Retreating in Norway
April 24, 1940: British Bombard Narvik
April 25, 1940: Norwegian Air Battles
April 26, 1940: Norwegian Gold
April 27, 1940: Allies to Evacuate Norway
April 28, 1940: Prepared Piano
April 29, 1940: British at Bodo
April 30, 1940: Clacton-on-Sea Heinkel

2016

April 28, 1940: Prepared Piano


Sunday 28 April 1940

28 April 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com Otta Norway
Dead British "Green Howards" after the battle at Otta, Norway on 28 April 1940.

Norway: The British cabinet, given a strong recommendation in the morning of 28 April 1940 from General Massy, affirms the Military Coordination Committee (MCC) decision on 27 April to evacuate Norway. Everything is prepared for a quick exit.

Lieutenant General Claude Auchinleck is appointed commander of the British forces in Norway, now named the North Western Expeditionary Force. He will oversee the evacuation.

Norway Army Operations: General Paget at Otta and General de Wiart at Namsos both receive orders to evacuate.

Paget tells Norwegian Commander in Chief Ruge at 05:00. Ruge gets angry at both the decision and not being told previously. He still believes that the defensive 15th Brigade south of Dombås can establish a permanent line, but the decision is final. He offers to assist with the retreat as long as Norwegian troops are included in the evacuation.

The 15th Brigade at Otta holds its line during the day, destroying three German light tanks. During the night, it withdraws 25 north to Dombås, where it can protect its own flank. They conduct a scorched-earth policy, blowing bridges as they go.

General de Wiart in Namsos withdraws his forces into a tighter, more defensible perimeter as he prepares to depart. He faces Luftwaffe attacks only.

The French 27th Demi-Brigade de Chasseurs Alpins deploys on the mainland at Sjovegan, north of Narvik.

Norway Air Operations: The Luftwaffe continues bombing the British ports in northern Norway.

The Luftwaffe sends reinforcements and supplies to General Dietl's troops at Narvik with 89 Junkers Ju-52 transports.

Having downed a German Heinkel 111 the previous night, RAF pilot Captain Partridge has crash-landed nearby. He finds a hut, then hears someone outside - it is the crew of the bomber he shot down. He invites them in, they become friends, and are picked up this morning by a Norwegian ski patrol.

28 April 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com Denver Post


Battle of the Atlantic: The Queen Mary, impressed into British military service, completes a record-breaking, 12-day trip from New York to Cape Town.

U-13 (Kapitänleutnant Max-Martin Schulte) torpedoes and damages 9,491 ton British tanker Scottish American west of Pentland, Firth.

Convoy OA 138 GF departs from Southend, Convoy OB 138 departs from Liverpool.

Italian battleship Vittorio Veneto completed.

28 April 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com John Cage
John Cage performing with his "prepared piano" in Seattle, 28 April 1940.

German Homefront: The Bayerische Motorenwerke BMW Mille Miglia Touring Coupe wins the Mille Miglia with an average speed of 166.7 km/h (103.6 mph).

American Homefront/Future History: John Cage, described as an "avante-garde experimentalist," debuts his "Bacchanale." It features his "prepared piano. The Seattle Daily Times describes "Bacchanale" as being "breathtaking in its speed and rhythm as well as unusual in its piano accompaniment." The National Academy of Arts and Letters will award Cage a $1000 honorarium - good money in those days - for the invention.

28 April 1940 worldwartwo.filminspector.com Mille Miglia
BMW Sweeps the Mille Miglia, April 28, 1940.

April 1940

April 1, 1940: Weserubung is a Go
April 2, 1940: British Subs On Alert
April 3, 1940: Churchill Consolidates Power
April 4, 1940: Missed the Bus
April 5, 1940: Mig-1 First Flight
April 6, 1940: Troops Sailing to Norway
April 7, 1940: Fleets At Sea
April 8, 1940: HMS Glowworm and Admiral Hipper
April 9, 1940: Invasion of Norway
April 10, 1940: First Battle of Narvik
April 11, 1940: Britain Takes the Faroes
April 12, 1940: Germans Consolidate in Norway
April 13, 1940: 2d Battle of Narvik
April 14, 1940: Battle of Dombås
April 15, 1940: British in Norway
April 16, 1940: Germans Cut Norway in Half
April 17, 1940: Trondheim the Target
April 18, 1940: Norway Declares War
April 19, 1940: Dombås Battle Ends
April 20, 1940: Germans Advancing in Norway
April 21, 1940: First US Military Casualty
April 22, 1940: First British Military Contact with Germans
April 23, 1940: British Retreating in Norway
April 24, 1940: British Bombard Narvik
April 25, 1940: Norwegian Air Battles
April 26, 1940: Norwegian Gold
April 27, 1940: Allies to Evacuate Norway
April 28, 1940: Prepared Piano
April 29, 1940: British at Bodo
April 30, 1940: Clacton-on-Sea Heinkel

2016