Saturday, April 4, 2020

March 20, 1942: "I Shall Return," Says MacArthur

Friday 20 March 1942

MacArthur at Terowie, 20 March 1942
The MacArthur family (Jean, Arthur, and Douglas) at the Terowie train station on 20 March 1942 (Photo - Terowie Citizens' Ass. Inc.).
Battle of the Pacific: During his seemingly endless train ride from Alice Springs to Melbourne, General Douglas MacArthur seizes a chance at Terowie railway station north of Adelaide, Australia, to make a speech on 20 March 1942.
The President of the United States ordered me to break through the Japanese lines and proceed from Corregidor to Australia for the purpose, as I understand it, of organizing the American offensive against Japan, a primary object of which is the relief of the Philippines. I came through and I shall return.
The phrase "I shall return" becomes a battle cry for many in the Pacific Theater of Operations. MacArthur does not spend much time at Terowie, where he and his party are only changing trains, but his remarks are broadcast around the world. He has had a long, lonely ride to think up what to say, and he does it right.

Wavell and Hutton, 20 March 1942
"Burma. 20 March 1942. General Sir Archibald Wavell (right) is greeted by General T. J. Hutton, General Officer Commanding in Chief of Burma, upon his arrival at an RAF airfield." Australian War Memorial P02491.106.
Elsewhere, the Japanese remain on the attack. In Burma, the Battle of Yunnan-Burma Road continues with the beginning of the Battle of Oktwin. The Japanese 143rd Regiment, reinforced with cavalry units of the 55th Division, attacks the positions of the Chinese 5th Army Cavalry Regiment north of the Kan River. The Chinese quickly pull back to the north of Toungoo, leaving only one company to keep tabs on the advancing Japanese. There is little to delay the Japanese advance on Toungoo, but the 200th Chinese Division now has had enough time to build defensive positions in the Toungoo area which may be useful. The Japanese have the fresh 18th and 56th divisions, which just arrived by sea at Rangoon over the past few days, available.

The Japanese attempt to neutralize the strong Allied air power in Burma by attacking the American Volunteer Group (AVG) base at Magwe. They also attack "Burwing" (the RAF command in Burma). The British pull back from Tharrawaddy.

Brooklyn Eagle, 20 March 1942
The 20 March 1942 Brooklyn Eagle is full of optimism due to the stirring words of General MacArthur in Australia.
In the Philippines, Major General Jonathan Wainwright learns that he has been promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General. He now is given command of all U.S. forces in the Philippines (USFIP).

Japanese Mitsubishi G4M Navy Type 1 "Betty" bombers attack Broome Airfield in Western Australia. They attack from high altitude and do not cause any damage because most of the bombs miss the airfield completely. One nearby aboriginal is killed by a bomb splinter.

USS South Dakota (BB-57) is commissioned in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It will see heavy action in the Pacific during the second half of 1942 and later serve in the Atlantic for a while before returning to the Pacific.

USS Grunion, 20 March 1942
"USS_Grunion (SS-216), stern view at rest. March 20, 1942, at the Electric Boat Co., Groton, CT. In a little less than 6 months, the boat and all her crew would be M.I.A." (U.S. Navy).
Eastern Front: General Erich von Manstein, commander of the German 11th Army in Crimea, launches a minor counterattack to recover ground lost during the recent Soviet offensives on the Parpach Narrows. The attack is aimed to recover Korpech', a German strongpoint which was the only major Red Army gain in the recent battles. The spearhead of the German/Romanian advance is the 22nd Panzer Division, which is inexperienced and equipped with weak Czech-built Panzer 38(t)s.

The attack goes wrong right from the start, with some of the panzers running into a minefield and others being slowed by thick fog. The Red Army reacts quickly and blocks the advance with a battalion of T-26 tanks and four heavy KV-1 tanks of the 55th Tank Brigade. After losing 32 of 152 tanks damaged or destroyed, Manstein calls off the attack. The one success of the attack is that it disrupts the Soviets' own planned attack in the same area, so it serves as an unintended spoiling attack.

Mitsubishi Raiden, 20 March 1942
The first flight of Mitsubishi J2M1 Raiden "Jack" was on 20 March 1942. It will make its combat debut in June 1944 at the Battle of the Philippine Sea. The Raiden became a mainstay of the Japanese Air Force in the last year of the war.
On the Volkhov River, the Germans participating in Operation Raubtier have cut off 130,000 Soviet troops to the west. The Red Army finally realizes the danger and General Kirill A. Meretskov’s Volkhov Front launches a determined attempt to relieve the pocket. This bears some fruit and a small opening is achieved through which a limited number of men and supplies can be funneled. However, the Germans are determined to seal their victory and the fierce battle along the river continues. The Soviet relief attempt is insufficient for the trapped Soviet forces to escape, and, in any event, they do not have permission to retreat back across the Volkhov even were that possible.

With Operation Raubtier having accomplished its main mission, the Wehrmacht quickly shifts to the next operation on the docket. This is Operation Brueckenschlag ("Bridge-building"), an attempt to relieve the Demyansk pocket.  There is some doubt whether the trapped men in the Demyansk Pocket can hold out through the Spring thaw ("Rasputitsa"), which is fast approaching, so every day is precious. German resources, especially in the air, are so light that they cannot do even these small operations contemporaneously, but only in sequence. Adolf Hitler personally is ordering these shifts from East Prussia, keeping a close eye on daily developments. The Luftwaffe spends today shifting its units from the Volkhov to the Demyansk area, and Generalmajor Walter von Seydlitz-Kurzbach shifts his attack units into position on the X Corps line. The relief attack is scheduled to begin at daylight on the 21st.

British anti-aircraft gunner, 20 March 1942
"Seaman James Sweeney with his Lewis gun." A gunner on board the trawler HMS Cornelian, 20 March 1942. © IWM (A 8009).
European Air Operations: A prolonged lull in operations continues today on the Channel Front. During the day, RAF Bomber Command sends 13 Manchesters and 6 Lancasters to lay mines in the Frisian Islands. Due to poor weather, only 11 manage to lay their mines in the proper area. The RAF also sends two bombers to attack Essen, but they return without completing their mission due to weather conditions.

"Plan for Initiation of U.S. Army Bombardment Operations in the British Isles" is released by the US Army Air Force. It spells out an agenda of using the British Isles to bomb German infrastructure on the Continent. Major General Ira C Eaker submits a report to Major General James E Chaney, requested on 25 February 1942, analyzing the best methods for this air offensive. It concludes that an effective campaign can be waged by combining USAAF daylight precision bombing with RAF night area bombing. The effects of the bombing campaign can be enhanced by close coordination between the two air forces.

Launching of USS Birmingham, 20 March 1942
"Launch of the U.S. Navy light cruiser USS Birmingham (CL-62) at the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company shipyard, Newport News, Virginia (USA), on 20 March 1942." US Naval History and Heritage Command NH 75592.
Battle of the Atlantic: U-71 (Kptlt. Walter Flachsenberg), on its fifth patrol out of St. Nazaire, uses its machine gun to stop 5766-ton US freighter Oakmar about 300 miles east of Cape Hatteras. Oakmar is unarmed, so the U-boat's machine gun alone is sufficient to force the crew to abandon ship (the seas are too rough to use the deck gun). Flachsenberg then fires a torpedo that misses due to the rough seas, but a second at 21:39 hit forward of the bridge, causing the ship to sink. There are six dead and 30 survivors, with several of the crew lost due to the rough weather.

Italian submarine Enrico Tazzoli (Cmdr Carlo Fecia di Cossato) spots British tanker Davila while heading back to Bordeaux but cannot attack because of previous war damage on its patrol. However, the crew of the Davila spots the submarine and decides to attack it. Cossata dives when the Davila begins firing at him. Both ships escape without damage. This is a rare instance of a tanker attacking a submarine instead of vice versa.

Norwegian 823-ton freighter Risøy is attacked by three aircraft and sunk near Trevose Head, Cornwall, England. There is one death.

British tanker Davila, 20 March 1942
British tanker Davila, which attacked the Italian submarine Enrico Tazzoli on 20 March 1942.
Battle of the Mediterranean: U-652 (Oblt. Georg-Werner Fraatz), on its eighth patrol out of Salamis, Greece, when its crew spots 1050-ton British destroyer HMS Heythrop (L 85) about 40 miles northeast of Bardia. At 10:54, Fraatz fires four torpedoes, one of which hits destroyer Heythrop. HMS Eridge (L 68) takes Heythrop in tow, but it sinks on the way to Alexandria. There are 16 dead and 150 survivors.

The Royal Navy is running another major convoy operation to Malta from Gibraltar. Force H brings a flight of Spitfires to replace the planes lost in the recent Luftwaffe onslaught on the island. This is operation MG 1. A separate convoy of four freighters, MW-10, also departs from Alexandria bound for Malta. The Royal Navy positions six submarines in the Gulf of Taranto in case the Italian Fleet decides to intervene. With all of these ships in motion, the possibility of a major battle is likely, and this leads eventually to the Second Battle of Sirte.

British destroyer Heythrop, sunk on 20 March 1942
British destroyer Heythrop, sunk by U-652 off Bardia on 20 March 1942.
As a decoy for the naval operations, the British Eighth Army is tasked with drawing German attention to land operations. It launches raids against German landing grounds in the Derna and Benghazi area after dark.

Malta itself remains under heavy air attack. Bombs land all over the island, and there are several mass air raids involving many dozens of Luftwaffe aircraft. The Germans also increasingly are strafing civilian areas with cannon fire. Ta Qali airfield is so badly damaged that the Army must be called to repair it.

Rhodesian pilot Douglas Leggo, KIA on 20 March 1942
Rhodesian Pilot Officer Douglas Leggo, shown here before his commission, was shot down and perished on 20 March 1942. The message on the plane is written in Shona (Media Drum World).
Partisans: Operation Munich, an anti-partisan operation in the Yelnya-Dorogobuzh area that began on 19 March, continues today. The partisans sometimes make a stand and fight ferociously, but more often they just melt away into the forests and towns and blend in with innocent townspeople. The Red Army has reinforced the partisan forces with trained soldiers who provide organizational and weapons skills.

At the Polish town of Zgierz, the German occupation forces decide to enforce draconian new rules for taking reprisals against partisans. The Germans round up 100 Poles from a nearby labor camp and execute them in front of an assembled crowd of 6000 from Zgierz and the surrounding area.

US tanker Oakmar, sunk on 20 March 1942
US tanker Oakmar, sunk by U-71 on 20 March 1942.
Soviet/Japanese Relations: While both nations are engaged in fights to the death, Japan and the USSR maintain eerily normal relations. Today, their representatives sign an extension of the 1928 Russo-Japanese Fishing Convention in Kuibyshev (the location of most of the bureaucracy of the Soviet government).

US Military: New US Navy aircraft carrier USS Hornet (CV-8) arrives in San Diego after transiting the Panama Canal. It will soon begin carrier qualifications. The Hornet has been experimenting with launching B-25B bombers in anticipation of a bombing raid on a target yet to be disclosed to anyone on board the ship. Sixteen B-25s are being prepared for this mysterious mission by stripping them of everything not deemed essential.

British Government: Sir Stafford Cripps, on his way to India to talk to Mahatma Gandhi and other Indian nationalists, stops off in Cairo to receive a briefing.

Railroad Magazine, March 1942
Railroad Magazine, March 1942.
Holocaust: Adolf Hitler discusses the Final Solution with Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels at Rastenburg. Goebbels notes in his diary:
Here, the Fuhrer is as uncompromising as ever. The Jews must be got out of Europe, if necessary by applying the most brutal methods.
It is not only the Jews, of course, who are the recipients of the "most brutal methods." Hitler's first objective, though, is to obtain slave laborers for the Reich's war needs.

An English translation of a dispatch in which the Chilean consul in Prague, Gonzalo Montt Rivas discusses the Holocaust winds up in American files by 20 March 1942. This is the earliest proof that American authorities had reason to know the Holocaust was in progress. In the memo, Rivas tells his colleagues about a German decree that Jews living abroad could no longer be German subjects and that their property would be confiscated. Writing in Spanish, Rivas says:
The Jew [residing abroad] loses German nationality immediately... The fortune which the Reich obtains in this manner will serve to solve the questions in connection with Jews
Rivas notes that "The German triumph [in the war] will leave Europe freed of Semites."

The first mass transport of Jews to the Auschwitz death camp begins on 20 March 1942. Occupation authorities in Poprad, Slovakia, tell local unmarried Jewish women and girls to assemble at the local school at 8 a.m. to be taken to do war work. The Hlinka guard, the military arm of Catholic priest Jozef Tiso’s First Slovak Republic, loads them into windowless cattle cars. The car is empty save for a vegetable tin to serve as a toilet. Within a week, the 800 victims, joined by others along the way, are inmates at Auschwitz.

American Homefront: With fuel rationing in effect, companies are finding creative ways to get their employees to work. Today, the Chief of Transportation at Redstone Ordnance Plant (later Redstone Arsenal) in Madison County, Alabama, establishes a Share-A-Ride program. The Army provides gasoline to drivers with cars who are willing and able to drive other employees to and from work. A growing fraction of these employees, incidentally, are women.

Lil Abner, 20 March 1942
''Li'l Abner'' Comic Strip From 20 March 1942 Featuring Li'l Abner & Mammy Yokum -- Drawn & Signed by Al Capp.


Friday, April 3, 2020

March 19, 1942: Soviets Encircled on the Volkhov

Thursday 19 March 1942

Spitfire on HMS Eagle, 19 March 1942
A Supermarine Spitfire on board HMS Eagle, ca. 19 March 1942. The Spitfires are being taken to Malta with Force H (© IWM (A 9580)).
Eastern Front: The German I Corps and XXXVIII Corps, pushing into the base of a Soviet salient across the Volkhov River from the north and south, respectively, meet late in the day on 19 March 1942. This threatens to trap 130,000 Red Army troops to the west that have been trying to take Lyuban. The most significant Soviet outfit in the salient is the 2nd Shock Army, led by General Andrei Vlasov. This follows a typical pattern early in the war when the Red Army basically shrugs off these kinds of German tactics, usually to the Soviets' eventual detriment.

The Wehrmacht advance has been difficult because there are no north-south roads in the area, requiring a difficult route through snow and trees in frigid weather. The battle is not over, and the Soviets will reopen a small gap, but this encirclement in Operation Raubtier is the first major German success in the USSR since the fall.

In Crimea, General Erich von Manstein is preparing an attack on the Soviet line in the Parpach Narrows. He wishes to recover the small amount of territory lost in the recent Soviet attacks. However, the Soviets also are building up their own forces for a renewed attack. The only question is which side attacks first. Manstein's offensive, which he has prepared hurriedly and that relies on inexperienced troops using sketchy Czech tanks, is scheduled for the morning of 20 March 1942.

Bombs at Port Moresby, New Guinea, 19 March 1942
Battle of the Pacific: The Japanese score their first success in the Battle of Yunnan-Burma Road that began on 18 March when they win the Battle of Tachiao in the Sittang Valley. The 143rd Regiment of the 55th Division advances about 12 miles north and takes Pyu. The next Japanese objective is to attack the defenses of the Chinese Army Cavalry Regiment north of the Kan River. These will become known as the Battles of Toungoo and Oktwin, the main defensive position of the Chinese forces in the area.

Toungoo, now under Japanese attack, is the original training base of the American Volunteer Group (AVG) aka the "Flying Tigers." The AVG pilots and ground crew have had to "bug out" to northern India and China. Lieutenant General William J. Slim, former General Officer Commanding 10th Indian Division in Syria, arrives in Burma to take command of Imperial troops. Slim wants to hold the current Prome-Toungoo defensive line, which is good defensive terrain due to the presence of heavy jungles.

Map of Burma as of 19 March 1942
The situation in Burma as of 19 March 1942 (Charles F. Romanus, Riley Sunderland).
The Chinese troops in Burma are commanded by US Lieutenant General Joseph Stilwell, and communication issues arise between the different allied forces. While experienced fighters, the Chinese divisions are the size of British brigades. The British troops are all defeated remnants of the previous Japanese advance across Burma, but Slim does have a potent tank force in the 7th Armored Brigade.

Seven Japanese bombers raid Darwin city, Myilly Point, and Larrakeyah in the Northern Territory of Australia. The 9th Fighter Squadron of the 49th Fighter Group, USAAF scrambles from Batchelor Field (where General MacArthur landed recently) to intercept them, but they arrive after the bombers have left.

The Border Watch of Mount Gambier, Australia, 19 March 1942
The Mount Gambier, Australia, The Border Watch of 19 March 1942 trumpets General MacArthur's arrival on the front page. 
General Douglas MacArthur, recently arrived in Australia from the Philippines, and his party continues the long train ride from Alice Springs to Melbourne, Australia. MacArthur's journey is closely watched in the media, but the trip is arduous, lasting several days. Their railroad coach is tiny, with hard wooden seats running lengthwise that prevent movement within the train between coaches. In addition, the air is full of flies and this is a sheepherding region, with the train stopping once to aid a stricken sheepherder. The journey will require a change of trains at Terowie on the 20th, where MacArthur will make his famous "I shall return" speech. The party could fly, but Mrs. MacArthur refuses.

Japanese submarine HIJMS I-25 launches a Yokosuka E14Y1 "Glen" to reconnoiter Suva on Viti Levu Island, Fiji. As with all similar Japanese reconnaissance missions of the sort, this one goes unobserved by the Allies.

Following the path taken by General MacArthur, Philippine President Manuel Quezon and 13 members of his party use motor torpedo boat PT-41 to evacuate threatened Dumaguete, Negros Island. They sail the 240 miles to Oroquito, Mindanao Island, where the US Army still maintains an airbase.

Tempo magazine, 19 March 1942
Italian magazine Tempo features a cover story on "Surveillance aircraft at work upon enemy positions" in its issue for 19 March 1942.
European Air Operations: An extended lull in operations continues on the Channel front. RAF Bomber Command sends one Wellington bomber to Essen during the day, but weather conditions force its early return to base.

Battle of the Atlantic: The U-boat fleet has been sinking tankers almost every day recently. This has caused great concern in London and Washington and has led to fuel rationing in the United Kingdom. The situation only gets worse today as more tankers go down.

U-124 (Kptlt. Georg-Wilhelm Schulz), on its eighth patrol out of Lorient, continues a very successful patrol off the east coast of the United States when it torpedoes and sinks two U.S. tankers about 15 miles southwest of Cape Lookout:
  • 5939-ton tanker Papoose (2 dead, 32 survivors)
  • 7076-ton tanker W.E. Hutton (13 dead, 23 survivors)
Schulz puts two torpedoes into Papoose beginning at 04:31. He then follows up by hitting the W.E. Hutton at 05:38. The men of both ships are rescued during the day by other passing freighters.

SS Liberator, 19 March 1942
SS Liberator, one of the ships lost on 19 March 1942.
U-332 (Kptlt. Johannes Liebe), on its third patrol out of La Pallice, torpedoes and sinks 7,720-ton US freighter Liberator about three miles west of the Diamond Shoals Buoy off Cape Hatteras. The ship is carrying 11,000 tons of sulfur, which ignites and creates fumes that force the crew to quickly abandon ship. There are five dead. The 30 survivors are picked up within an hour by USS Umpqua (AT 25), which witnesses the attack. This concludes U-332's patrol, during which it has sunk 25,125 tons of shipping off the east coast.

US tanker W.E. Hutton, sunk on 19 March 1942
U.S. tanker W.E. Hutton, lost on 19 March 1942.
Battle of the Mediterranean: The sustained Axis air assault on Malta continues on 19 March. The list of sites hit is extensive:
  • 1 JU 88 - 4 x 250kg (Ta Qali Aerodrome)
  • 4 ME 109 - 4 x 250kg (Grand Harbour)
  • 5 JU 88 - 20 x 250kg; 30 x 50kg (Grand Harbour)
  • 6 JU 88 - 24 x 500kg (Marsaxlokk)
  • 10 JU 88 - 8 x 500kg; 15 x 250kg; 36 x 50kg (Ta Qali Aerodrome)
  • 3 JU 88 - 12 x 250kg; 24 x 50kg (Luqa and Safi strip)
  • 6 JU 88 - 20 x 500kg (West of Luqa)
  • 13 JU 88 - 44 x 250kg; 100 x 50kg (South Malta)
Despite the air attacks, Malta remains in operation as a supply base for Royal Navy submarines. Today, HMS Unbeaten departs on patrol after a quick resupply turnaround, and Upright heads to Gibraltar and then the US for a refit.

Royal Navy submarine Upholder (Lt.Cdr. M.D. Wanklyn) uses its deck gun to sink 22-ton Italian auxiliary minesweeper B-14 (Maria) about 20 nautical miles south of Brindisi, Italy. There is no record of casualties.

US tanker Papoose, sunk on 19 March 1942
U.S. tanker Papoose, sunk on 19 March 1942.
Partisans: The Soviet partisan movement is becoming a serious problem for the Wehrmacht. The Third Panzer Army war diary states during late March:
There are indications that the partisan movement in the region of Velikye Luki, Vitebsk, Rudnya, Velizh, is now beiing organized on a large scale. The fighting strength of the partisans hitherto active is being bolstered by individual units of regular troops.
Some of the partisans are soldiers trapped during the rapid start of Operation Barbarossa. Others are Red Army troops flown in and dropped behind the German lines specifically to engage in partisan operations. The German troops sometimes see these Red Air Force planes landing in the distance to their rear and know exactly what is going on. As usual, the German response to this problem involves a massive application of force.

The Germans launch Operation Munich. This is a combined air/ground operation in the Yelnya/Dorogubuzh region against Soviet partisans. The Germans also are preparing and begin a similar anti-partisan action in the area of Hlusk District-Pariczi-Oktiabrskij to the south of Bobrujsk, in the eastern Polesie. This latter operation, more widely known, is Operation Bamberg.

In Serbia and Croatia, the Axis occupation authorities issue a draconian directive calling for the destruction of any village suspected of harboring or aiding partisans:
Removal of the population to concentration camps can also be useful. If it is not possible to apprehend or seize partisans, themselves, reprisal measures of a general nature may be in order, for example, the shooting of male inhabitants in nearby localities.
The directive specifies as an example of these "reprisal measures" that 100 local inhabitants be shot for every German that is killed, with 50 to be shot for every wounded Wehrmacht soldier. This is severe even by German standards.

USS Juneau in New York, 19 March 1942
"USS Juneau (CL-52), March 1942. Light cruiser at New York (also known as Brooklyn) Navy Yard, New York City, New York, March 19, 1942. U.S. Bureau of Ships Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives. (2015/02/18)." National Museum of the U.S. Navy 19-LCM-31285.
US Military: Admiral King sends a memo to President Roosevelt in which he claims that it is "not at all sure that the British are applying sufficient effort to bombing German submarine bases and building (repair) yards." He adds that "It seems that the R.A.F. is not fully cooperative in complying with the views of the Admiralty in this (and other) matters relative to the selection of military objectives." He suggests "a directive from 'higher authority'" to remedy this situation. There is a constant tension throughout the war as different allied services request priority in the choice of bombing targets.

US Military Intelligence warns that the Japanese may seize the Aleutian Islands soon. The Aleutian Islands have been a preoccupation by both sides since the 1920s, with both the US and Japan worried they will be used for bombing operations against their respective homelands. The Intelligence position is that the Japanese also would use the islands to interrupt US/Soviet communications. Soviet-flagged ships continue to pass between the United States and the USSR in the North Pacific area because Japan is not at war with the Soviet Union.

HMS Wallace, 19 March 1942
"Ratings aboard HMS WALLACE being issued with free gift cigarettes. Lieut Cdr J P Reid, RNVR, the CALO at Rosyth is handing out the gifts." 19 March 1942 (© IWM (A 7999)).
British Government: In Parliament, PM Winston Churchill announces various appointments. These include the appointment of R.G. Casey, the Australian Minister of Washington, as Minister of State in Cairo and a member of the British War Cabinet. Australian Prime Minister Curtin objects to this appointment, which he makes clear to Churchill in a testy exchange by message.

British home secretary Herbert Morrison accuses the London paper The Daily Mirror of "reckless indifference to the national interest" for its practice of publishing stories with an antiwar slant. This has been a continuing theme of the Winston Churchill government during the war, as Churchill expects nothing but cheerleading from the British press.

US Government: Congress is busy working on the relocation of people along the west coast of the United States for defense reasons. The Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration issues a report today recommending the imposition of a penalty of a $5,000 fine and misdemeanor conviction with the possibility of up to one-year imprisonment for persons violating restriction orders related to the military zones. This passes quickly, with little debate or discussion.

Holocaust: A new gas van, driven by two junior SS officers, Götz and Meyer, is used for the first time in Belgrade to address the "Jewish problem." These first victims of the gas van are staff and patients at the two Jewish hospitals in the city. The victims are loaded in groups of 80 and 100 and then driven through Belgrade. The vehicle exhaust is fed into the truck, killing the occupants within 15 minutes. The 800 dead in the two-day operation that concludes today are driven to Jajinci, a village at the base of mount Avala, south of the city. There, seven Serbian prisoners bury the dead in mass graves.

Spitfire on HMS Eagle, 19 March 1942
A Spitfire taking off from HMS Eagle, 19 to 23 March 1942 (© IWM (A 9586)).


Wednesday, April 1, 2020

March 18, 1942: Japan Attacks In Burma

Wednesday 18 March 1942

Royal Navy patrol boat 18 March 1942
"HMT ADRONIE CAMIEL with a barrage balloon above her." 18 March 1942 in Milford Haven and Fishguard. © IWM (A 7908).
Battle of the Pacific: In Burma, the two-day Battle of Tachiao begins on 18 March 1942 when about 200 Japanese reconnaissance troops on motorbikes are ambushed while advancing toward a critical bridge 35 miles south of Toungoo and 12 miles south of Pyu. The Japanese lose 30 dead and much equipment but resume their advance as the main body of troops arrives. This conflict begins the Battle of Yunnan-Burma Road which will last until early June 1942.

The American Volunteer Group (AVG), or "Flying Tigers," are still causing the Japanese problems in Burma. At 07:55, they attack the Japanese airfield at Moulmein and destroy three bombers, two transport planes, and 11 fighters on the ground. The Japanese realize they need to beef up their air presence in Burma. So, during the day, the Japanese transfer 420 aircraft from recently conquered Malaya and the Netherlands East Indies to reinforce their forces in Burma.

Royal Navy Minesweeper 18 March 1942
"Motor Minesweeper J514." 18 March 1942. © IWM (A 9738).
After spending the night in Alice Springs, Australia, General MacArthur's party boards a three-car wooden train drawn by a steam locomotive that General Brett has commandeered from the Australians and heads for Melbourne via Adelaide. This journey will take several days and involve numerous stops and changes of trains. MacArthur is traveling by train because his wife, Jean, is tired of flying.

The United States' presence in Australia is still very light. Today, the US Army Air Force has a strength of 213 combat aircraft. This includes a dozen B-17 Flying Fortresses, 27 A-24 Dauntless dive bombers, various other medium and light bombers, 33 P-39 and 52 Bell P-400 Aircobras (export version of the P-39), 92 P-40 fighters, and assorted other transport and trainer aircraft.

USAAF pilot Paul Bateman enlists on 18 March 1942
Let's take a look at an average pilot. "Lt. Paul H. Bateman enlisted on 18 March 1942 at Fort Bragg, NC. Assigned to the 370th Fighter Squadron in April 1943, he completed his combat tour of duty in July 1944 with 301-1/2 hours and 1-3/4 aerial victories and 1-1/3 ground. Aircraft included P-51B CS-O 42-106926." American Air Museum UPL 38438.
Eastern Front: The Wehrmacht scores a minor victory in Operation Raubtier when elements of I Corps advancing from the north cut a Soviet supply road into the large salient on the western side of the Volkhov River. With the "Erika" lane in their possession, the Germans continue driving from both north and south toward the remaining supply lane, codenamed "Dora." The Red Army has 130,000 troops to the west whose only source of communications to the east is along the Dora lane, which now is in severe jeopardy.

European Air Operations: The RAF is in the midst of an extended lull in operations. RAF Bomber Command sends five Wellington bombers to Essen but they return without attacking due to weather conditions.

SS Kassandra Louloudis, lost on 18 March 1942
SS Kassandra Louloudis, lost on 18 March 1942.
Battle of the Atlantic: U-124 (Kptlt. Johann Mohr) has a big day off the east coast of the United States. It sinks two unarmed US tankers. First, at 01:14, Mohr spots and sinks independent 5106-ton Greek tanker Kassandra Louloudis (Master Themistokles Mitlas) about seven miles off Diamond Shoals, Cape Hatteras. All 35 men on board survive. At 08:27, Mohr spots and sinks independent 9647-ton US tanker E.M. Clark (Master Hubert L. Hassell) about 22 miles southwest of the Diamond Shoals Lighted Buoy. Two torpedoes hit, and the tanker sinks ten minutes later. There are one death and 40 survivors.

British 1547-ton freighter Ebro, carrying a load of fish from Reykjavik (Iceland) to Hull (GB), runs aground in Strathberg Bay, 2 nm NW of Rattray Lighthouse (Scotland, UK) and is written off. There is no report of any casualties.

U-653 (Kptlt. Gerhard Feiler), on its second patrol out of Brest, is lurking along the North Atlantic route near Convoy SL-119 when it is spotted by a patrolling Liberator aircraft of Squadron 120/F.  The submarine crew realizes it has been spotted and quickly dives, but it leaves one man topside who is lost. The U-boat sustains damage during the attack and barely makes it back to Brest on 30 April.

Italian submarine Tricheco, lost on 18 March 1942
Italian submarine Tricheco, shown being launched in 1931, was lost on 18 March 1942.
Battle of the Mediterranean: Royal Navy submarines continue their recent streak of sinking Italian submarines in the Mediterranean today. HMS Upholder (Lt.Cdr. Malcolm David Wanklyn) spots Italian submarine Tricheco sailing from Augusta, Sicily, to Brindisi and pumps a torpedo into it. The Tricheco splits into two pieces and sinks within seconds. There are 38 deaths and three survivors, including the captain.

The Luftwaffe continues its daily raids on Malta today. Junkers Ju 88s begin the barrage at around 08:00, and air battles continue over the island throughout the day. Both sides suffer losses, and the Germans succeed in further damaging Hal Far Airfield and other key points.

Rear Admiral Robert Lindsay Burnett,18 March 1942
"Rear Admiral Robert Lindsay Burnett, OBE, addressing the ship's company of HMS ASHANTI. On the right just below the Admiral is the ship's captain, Commander R G Onslow, RN." 18 March 1942. © IWM (A 7972).
Anglo/US Relations: President Roosevelt sends Winston Churchill promising to send "one new battleship, two heavy cruisers, one carrier, five or six destroyers" to form a large part of Admiral Ghormley's European command. These forces, however, will "be under operational orders of CINC Home Fleet," meaning British command. This suggests that Ghormley is more of an administrator than a commander.

US/Chinese Relations: The United States Navy leases its river gunboat Tutuila to the Chinese government for the duration.

US/Australian Relations: General Brett, now technically General MacArthur's deputy even though MacArthur is still en route from Darwin, announces that the USAAF and Australian Air Force (RAAF) will fly together as a combined force.

British Military: Vice Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten is named Chief of Combined Operations.

US Military: Two companies of the 182nd Infantry Regiment and a company of engineers arrive on Efate Island in the New Hebrides to construct an airfield.

An Auschwitz victim executed on 18 March 1942
Polish Jew Abraham Weinberger (No. 25986) of Tarnów, a political prisoner, was executed at Auschwitz on 18 March 1942.
US Government: President Roosevelt signs Executive Order No. 9102. This creates the War Relocation Authority (WRA), which handles the relocation and internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. The order directs in part:
Take all people of Japanese descent into custody, surround them with troops, prevent them from buying land, and return them to their former homes at the close of the war.
Milton S. Eisenhower (the brother of Dwight) is appointed as the first director despite the fact that he is largely against the whole internment scheme. He writes his former boss, Agriculture Secretary Claude Wickard:
When the war is over, and we consider calmly this unprecedented migration of 120,000 people, we, as Americans, are going to regret the unavoidable injustices that we may have done.
Eisenhower, unable to cut back the program as he desires, will resign on 18 June 1942. However, during his brief tenure, he does manage to implement some reforms, such as raising wages for the interned people and establishing an internee advisory council.

The WRA's main objective is to take internees from their temporary "assembly centers" established by the military's Wartime Civilian Control Administration (WCCA) and move them into permanent camps. This is done successfully at ten camp locations, most of which are on tribal land, though often the arriving internees themselves have to help with the camp construction.

American Homefront: "Reap the Wild Wind," directed by Cecil B. DeMille and starring John Wayne and Ray Milland, hits theaters today. While one of Wayne's lesser-known films, "Reap the Wild Wind" is very successful and helps to cement his status as a major Hollywood star. It also is one of Wayne's more unusual films in that he plays a very dark character that is very similar to his later role in "Wake of the Red Witch" (1948). Paulette Goddard also stars.

Female aircraft workers in England, 18 March 1942
"Two women workers sit inside the cockpit of an aircraft as they wire up the pilot's instrument panel, at a factory somewhere in Britain. According to the original caption, one woman is a GTC (Government Training Centre) trainee, and the other has been recently transferred from the canteen." 18 March 1942. © IWM (L 346).


Sunday, March 29, 2020

March 17, 1942: MacArthur Arrives in Australia

Tuesday 17 March 1942

US GIs arriving in Australia, 17 March 1942
United States troops arrive in Australia, 17 March 1942.
Battle of the Pacific: General Douglas MacArthur completes his escape from the Philippines by arriving on 17 March 1942 at the emergency field Batchelor Airfield about 50 miles from Darwin, Australia. Arriving at 09:00 in two B-17 bombers from Mindanao, MacArthur and his group have had to leave their luggage behind because a third bomber experienced engine troubles. The bombers take off at 01:30 on the 17th with one engine spluttering due to a bad supercharger and with MacArthur sitting in the radio operator's seat. His chief of staff, Major General Richard K. Sutherland, rides out the 1500-mile flight in the cramped bomb bay.

NY_Times, 18 March 1942
The NY Times edition that announced the return of General MacArthur notes optimistically in its headline that "Move hailed as foreshadowing turn of [the] tide."
MacArthur's journey almost had a disastrous ending. As the two B-17s approached Darwin, the original destination, the crew learned that a Japanese air raid was in progress over the airfield. The planes are able to divert without incident to nearby Batchelor Airfield, where a very grateful General MacArthur awards Silver Stars to the crews of the two bombers. Waiting at the airfield are two Australian National Airways DC-3 transport planes. Because the general's wife, Jean MacArthur, is tired of flying, the general has the planes fly them only to the nearest railway station at Alice Springs, 1000 miles (1600 km) away. There, the general, his wife, and a few cronies spend the night on cots on a hotel verandah before later boarding a special train to Melbourne.

Adelaide, Australia, Advertiser, 17 March 1942
The Advertiser of Adelaide, Australia, of 17 March 1942 notes in its headline that the Japanese have bombed Darwin for the third time. However, there does not appear to be any mention of General MacArthur's arrival.
MacArthur's arrival receives worldwide attention. President Roosevelt issues a public statement congratulating the general on his escape:
I know that every man and woman in the United States admires with me General MacArthur's determination to fight to the finish with his men in the Philippines. But I also know that every man and woman is in agreement that all important decisions must be made with a view toward the successful termination of the war. Knowing this, I am sure that every American, if faced individually with the question as to where General MacArthur could best serve his country, could come to only one answer.
President Roosevelt quickly sends off a cable to Winston Churchill apprising him of the general's arrival in Australi with "a small staff." Roosevelt also instructs General Brett, the US commander in Australia, to propose MacArthur as the supreme commander in that region to Australian Prime Minister Curtin. This offer is immediately accepted by PM Curtin, making MacArthur the overall commander of Allied forces in the southwest Pacific Ocean.

The United States officially takes responsibility for the strategic defense of the Pacific Theater of Operations. The British still have a presence there, of course, but the overwhelming power lies in the hands of the Americans and this is just an acceptance of the reality of the situation.

Hattiesburg, Mississippi, American, 17 March 1942
The Hattiesburg (Mississippi) American of 17 March 1942 notes the arrival of General MacArthur but also trumpets the series of tornadoes that have devastated many nearby states from 15-17 March 1942.
The trapped men left behind in the Philippines (two-thirds of whom do not survive the war) are not quite as joyful as some others, but nobody in the outside world can hear them anyway. However, the Axis propaganda networks are trumpeting MacArthur's departure from the Philippines, a fact which makes Roosevelt urge Churchill to issue a joint press release announcing the general's escape so that the effects of such propaganda is "forestalled." MacArthur will further this effort on 20 March 1942 when he makes his famous "I shall return" speech.

US Navy submarine USS Grayback (SS-208, Lt. Cdr. W. A. Saunders) sinks 3291-ton Japanese collier Ishikari Maru six miles west of Port Lloyd, Chichi Jima, Bonin Islands. There is no indication of casualties.

US Navy submarine USS Permit is damaged by depth charges off Tayabas Bay, Luzon, but remains on patrol.

Eastern Front: Operation Raubtier, the German attempt to encircle Soviet forces that have advanced across the Volkhov River, continues to make slow but steady progress. The Germans in the north are coming very close to one of the two Soviet supply roads, codenamed "Erika." If they take it, the Soviets will have only one other supply road, codenamed "Dora," for their two armies operating to the west.

European Air Operations: A prolonged lull in major RAF operations continues. A lone Wellington bomber is sent to Essen but, due to clouds that prevent accurate navigation, drops its bombs in the Ruhr River.

Tanker San Demetrio, sunk on 17 March 1942
Tanker San Demetrio, sunk on 17 March 1942.
Battle of the Atlantic: U-68 (K.Kapt. Karl-Freidrich Merten), on its third patrol out of Lorient, has a big day while operating about 28 miles southwest of Cape Palmas, Ivory Coast. It sinks three ships. First, at 06:35, Merten torpedoes and later uses the deck gun to finish off independent 5755-ton British freighter Ile de Batz. There are four deaths and 39 survivors. Then, at 13:26, Merten puts two torpedoes into 4917-ton British freighter Scottish Prince. Once again, Captain Merten surfaces and the crew uses the deck gun to finish off the slowly sinking Scottish Prince. There is only one death, and the 38 survivors make it to Cape Palmas in the boats. Finally, at 21:03, Merten spots his third victim, 5081-ton British freighter Allende. Two torpedoes send the Allende to the bottom. There are five dead and 38 survivors.

U-404 (Kptlt. Otto von Bülow), on its second patrol out of Lorient, torpedoes and sinks 8073-ton British tanker San Demetrio. The tanker is traveling independently northwest of Cape Charles, Virginia. There are 19 dead, and the 34 survivors spend two days in lifeboats before being picked up by passing American freighter Beta. The master, Conrad Vidot, receives the Lloyds War Medal for Bravery at sea. This is another in a series of devastating tanker losses for the Allies in early 1942  which are causing concern in Washington and London.

British freighter Allende, sunk on 17 March 1942
British freighter Allende, sunk on 17 March 1942 off the coast of Africa.
U-124 (K.Kapt. Johann Mohr), nicknamed "Edelweisseboot," on its eighth and most successful patrol, torpedoes and sinks 1698-ton Honduran freighter Ceiba off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The crew of the independent Ceiba has brought along their wives and children, and many of them are among the 44 deaths. There are only a dozen survivors.

U-71 (K.Kapt. Walter Flachsenberg) is operating about 450 miles southeast of Philadephia, Pennsylvania when it puts two torpedoes into 6355-ton Norwegian tanker Ranja at 18:58. The ship catches fire and develops a list but does not sink and even continues to make headway, so Flachsenberg puts another torpedo into it at 19:54. That does the trick and the tanker becomes a blazing wreck that soon sinks. There are 34 deaths.

Norwegian tanker Ranja, sunk on 17 March 1942
Norwegian tanker Ranja, sunk on 17 March 1942.
U-373 (Kptlt. Paul-Karl Loeser), on its fourth patrol out of Brest, torpedoes and sinks independent 4292-ton Greek freighter Mount Lycabettus at 15:08 in the mid-Atlantic. All 30 men on board perish and this sinking was a mystery under post-war records were consulted. According to one source, the Lycabettus was chartered by neutral Switzerland with a Swiss cross painting and "Switzerland" prominently written on her hull, but this did not save her.

Royal Navy 630-ton rescue tug HMS Adept runs aground at Paterson's Rock near Sanda Island, Scotland, in thick fog. The sea batters the tug before it can be refloated and it is written off. There is no indication of any casualties.

British 3738-ton freighter Clare Lilley runs aground at Portuguese Cover, Halifax Harbor, and is lost. There are five deaths, and the rest of the crew is saved only due to heroic efforts by locals residents. The Clare Lilley's cargo of munitions remains a local hazard until the present day, though much of it was removed in the 1970s.

Italian submarine Guglielmotti, sunk on 17 March 1942
Italian submarine Guglielmotti, sunk on 17 March 1942.
Battle of the Mediterranean: Royal Navy submarine HMS Unbeaten (captain Edward Arthur Woodward) spots Italian submarine Guglielmotti off Capo dell Armi, Sicily, At 06:40, Captain Woodward fires four torpedoes and sinks the Italian submarine. All 61 men on board perish. Guglielmotti ends its career having sunk only one vessel, 4008-ton Greek tanker Atlas on 6 September 1940. This is the second British sinking of an Italian submarine recently, with HMS Ultimatum having sunk one on 14 March 1942.

U-83 (Kptlt. Hans-Werner Kraus) torpedoes and badly damages 2590-ton British tanker Crista between Alexandria and Tobruk. There are seven deaths, but the ship does not sink. A British motor torpedo boat (MTB 266) finds it abandoned and anchors it off Bardia, Libya. It is then towed back to Alexandria, arriving on the 28th. Crista is put back into service after repairs in 1944.

Royal Navy carrier-based aircraft attack 1778-ton German freighter Achaia and send it on a frantic attempt to escape. This causes the ship to blunder into a minefield, which does sink her about 25 miles east of Tripoli, Libya. There is no record of casualties.

Heavy Axis bombing of Malta resumes after a day of rest. Numerous bombs are dropped, particularly on favored targets Luqa and Grand Harbour. There are 30 civilian deaths recorded and one Spitfire is lost, along with several planes damaged on the ground. All told, the Luftwaffe drops 79,000 kg of high explosives today on the island.

Funeral for US seaman in the UK, 17 March 1942
Funeral of a United States seaman on 17 March 1942 in Gillingham Cemetery, Kent. "US Marines and US Seamen standing at the salute at the graveside." © IWM (A 7813).
British Military: Air Vice Marshal Donald F. Stevenson, commanding Allied air forces, transfers his headquarters from Burma to Calcutta. India.

US Military: Vice Admiral Robert L. Ghormley establishes his new United States Naval Forces Europe command. This will plan joint operations with the Royal Navy. Ghormley, former commander of the USS Nevada and Assistant Chief of Naval Operations, has been President Roosevelt's Special Naval Observer in the United Kingdom since August 1940. While Ghormley has a fancy new title, his European command actually only encompasses a very few ships, at least one of which the British have "lent" the US Navy (USS Impulse, formerly the British corvette HMS Begonia, commissioned into the US Navy on 16 March 1942 at the Albert Dock.).

The US Army Air Force 9th Pursuit Squadron arrives at Darwin, Northern Territory, equipped with P-40Es. The port city has been under regular Japanese air raids and today, of course, is when General MacArthur arrives there from the Philippines.

Serbian communist and anti-fascist militant Nada Dimić, executed 17 March 1942
On 17 March 1942, occupation authorities execute Serbian communist and anti-fascist militant Nada Dimić. She is executed in the Stara Gradiška concentration camp. Nada Dimić was a member of a partisan group in Croatia. She was executed for helping people escape the fascists into partisan areas.
Holocaust: At recently constructed Belzec extermination camp in Poland, daily gassings of prisoners begin. This is done quietly by experienced Aktion T4 (euthanasia program) personnel brought in under the guise of being Operation Todt construction laborers. While there have been gassings of prisoners before during the T4 euthanasia program (since ended, at least officially, due to public outcry), Belzec is the first stationary extermination camp to enter operation (Auschwitz is already functional but is not yet gassing inmates).

The Germans take great pains to conceal the camp's true purpose by creating two separate zones, or camps that are completely screened from each other. These are smaller gas chambers than are used later, made of planks and insulated with sand and rubber. It takes time to perfect the extermination process, with many rooms not functioning properly, and this quickly creates a massive backlog of thousands of people awaiting execution with more arriving daily by train. New gas chambers of brick and mortar are soon built as a result of the lessons learned from this early process. There is little time to waste, as today the Germans send the first transport trains of Jews from the cities of Lublin and Lwów (Lviv) to Belzec.

In Ilja, north of Minsk, USSR, the SS rounds up and liquidates 900 Jews. The incident is notable because the victims attempted collective resistance, but it failed.

In Kovno, 24 Jewish residents are found outside the ghetto buying food from local Lithuanians. Such "escapes" are strictly forbidden, and all 24 men are shot by the Gestapo.

First US draft lottery held on 17 March 1942
The first United States wartime draft lottery takes place on 17 March 1942.
British Homefront: The recent surge in U-boat sinkings of tankers, such as the sinking of tanker San Demetrio today, leads to a painful result in Great Britain. Drastic cuts are announced by Hugh Dalton, the president of the board of trade, in parliament. The British government imposes fuel rationing of about 25%. Coal, gas, and electricity for home heating are all subject to new limits. Persistent over-consumption will lead to prosecution and a complete cut-off of supply. In addition, the government announces cuts in the civilian clothing ration in order to release 50,000 textile workers for war production. All pleasure boating also is banned in order to save fuel.

American Homefront: The Wartime Civil Control Administration of the Western Defense Command and Fourth Army announce two new steps to speed up the "voluntary" evacuation of alien and American-born Japanese from the Pacific Coast military area. These include the opening of new services centers in 64 communities in the three Pacific Coast states and Arizona. In addition, the Farm Security Administration announces a plan for continuing full production on agricultural lands to be evacuated by the departing internees.

Future History: John Wayne Gacy is born in Chicago Illinois. He becomes involved with the Illinois Democratic Party in 1960, becoming an assistant precinct captain. He then engages in a series of odd jobs, including that of a mortuary attendant. During the 1960s, Gacy is believed to have begun sexually assaulting minor boys, and for one incident he is convicted and serves time in the Anamosa State Penitentiary. During the 1970s, Gacy's sexual violence escalates and he begins a string of murders, again of minor boys. He performs at events as ""Pogo the Clown" or "Patches the Clown," which enables him to disarm his victims into thinking he is safe. Gacy is arrested on 21 December 1978 and convicted of sodomy of a teenage boy in Iowa in 1968, serves his time, and returns to Illinois. He then continues his string of murders, which leads in 1980 to convictions of 33 counts of murder. After spending 14 years on death row, John Wayne Gacy is executed by lethal injection on 10 May 1994.

Decatur, Illinois, Daily Review, 17 March 1942
The 17 March 1942 Decatur (Illinois) Daily Review features scenes of devastation from the series of hurricanes that hit the southern half of the United States in mid-March 1942.


Saturday, March 28, 2020

March 16, 1942: General MacArthur Gets His Ride

Monday 16 March 1942

U-502 arriving back at Lorient on 16 March 1942
U-502 arrives back in port after a successful patrol during which it sank 33,800 tons of enemy shipping on 16 March 1942 (Moravia; Junkers, Federal Archive Figure 101II-MW-3810-20A).

Battle of the Pacific: Just before midnight on 16 March 1942, General Douglas MacArthur, his family, and his staff finally receive planes to take them from Del Monte, Mindanao, Philippines, to Australia on 16 March 1942. Three B-17 bombers of the US Army 5th Air Force arrive for this mission but one requires repairs before it can make the return trip (defective supercharger). Lead pilot Lieutenant Frank P. Bostrom readies for a quick turnaround by drinking a pot of coffee. He informs the general that he and his party must leave behind any luggage - including Mrs. MacArthur's prized mattress which she brought from Corregidor.

Japanese siege guns continue bombarding US Army forts on their fortified islands near Manila. The Japanese have emplaced additional artillery southwest of Temate and US counterbattery fire is ineffective. Already, several US guns have been knocked out at Forts Drum and Frank. The Japanese guns range up in size to 240 mm, and one shell hits a Fort Frank powder room but somehow fails to detonate the 60 filled powder cans inside. US Navy submarine USS Permit arrives at Corregidor Island to evacuate naval radio and communications intelligence soldiers.

U-502 arriving back at Lorient on 16 March 1942
The happy crew of U-502 as it arrives back at Lorient on 16 March 1942. Note the victory pennants signifying a successful patrol. (Moravia; Junkers, Federal Archive Figure 101II-MW-3810-24A).
Eastern Front: Operation Raubtier, the German mission to cut off Soviet troops that have advanced past the Volkhov River in an effort to take Lyuban, continues from both the north and south. Progress is slow but steady. The Soviet defenders on each end of the six-mile-wide breakthrough are slowly being compressed together. Even small German advances greatly improve their chances of final success.

The Germans need Operation Raubtier to end quickly so that they transfer the forces there to relieve the men trapped in the Demyansk pocket. In the pocket, General Walter von Brockdorff-Ahlefeldt, commander of the II Army Corps, has been talking about staging a desperate breakout to the west. To reassure him, Army Group North commander Georg von Küchler makes an unusually risky flight for an army group commander. He flies into the Demyansk pocket. During the flights in and out, Küchler makes personal observations about the relative positions of the two forces. He sees that the Soviets are attacking from the north and south, which means that an attack from the west might well succeed. Still, the relief attack will have to cover a full 20 miles, no small feat in the snowy or, if the attack is postponed too long, boggy terrain.

Examining a captured Panzer IV on 16 March 1942
"A captured German Mk IV tank is examined back at base in the Western Desert, 16 March 1942." © IWM (E 9309).
The Soviet attack at the Parpach Narrows in Crimea begun on 13 March 1942 is over. It has accomplished virtually nothing except the capture of the strongpoint at Korpech'. That small victory came at great cost in men, tanks, and planes. The Germans begin preparing a counterattack set to start on 20 March 1942. They bring in the fresh 22nd Panzer Division in order to recapture Korpech'. However, while the 22nd Pzr is powerful, it is equipped with obsolete Czech-built Panzer 38(t)s. The Soviets, meanwhile, are also building up their forces for a renewal of their attack, and the big question is who attacks first.

European Air Operations: It is a very quiet night on the Channel Front. There are standard anti-shipping sweeps during the day but no bombing missions.

U-502 arriving back at Lorient on 16 March 1942
The commander of U-502, Kptlt. Jürgen von Rosenstiel, on deck after his boat docks in Lorient on 16 March 1942 (Moravia; Junkers, Federal Archive Figure 101II-MW-3810-26A).
Battle of the Atlantic: U-332 (Kptlt. Johannes Liebe), on its third patrol out of La Pallice, torpedoes and sinks 11,628-ton US tanker Australia. The independent tanker is zigzagging near the Diamond Shoals Light Buoy of Cape Hatteras near other ships when U-332 spots its silhouette against the shore lights in the background. Liebe hits the tanker with a torpedo in the engine room, killing four men instantly. Freighter William J. Salman picks up the men in their three lifeboats in only 95 minutes. The ship submerges but does not completely sink (masts still visible) and has to be completely sunk later (20 March 1942) in order for the owner to receive compensation from the US War Shipping Administration (WSA).  There are four dead and 36 survivors.

U-68 (KrvKpt. Karl-Friedrich Merten), on its third patrol out of Lorient, torpedoes and sinks 3386-ton British freighter Baron Newlands six miles south of Cape Palmas, Liberia. The ship is sunk after a difficult pursuit through a thunderstorm. There are 20 survivors and 18 deaths. The survivors apparently managed to swim to shore or clung to flotsam and jetsam as no lifeboats were launched.

Dutch tanker Oscilla, sunk on 16 March 1942
Dutch tanker Oscilla, sunk near the Windward Islands on 16 March 1942.
Italian submarine Morosini torpedoes, shells, and sinks 6341-ton Dutch tanker Oscilla about 100 miles northeast of the Windward Islands.  There are four survivors and four deaths, including the captain, M.A.F. Kuypers.

Italian submarine Morosini also (apparently it is the Morosini, this is not confirmed) torpedoes and sinks 2802-ton British freighter Manaqui northeast of Barbuda. Morosini is known to be operating in this area. There are 41 dead. Another candidate for this sinking is U-504.

U-504 (KrvKpt. Hans-Georg Friedrich Poske), on its second patrol out of Lorient, torpedoes and sinks 5966-ton British freighter Stangarth about 300 miles north of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The ship, which is carrying ammunition and other military goods, explodes and sinks immediately. All 46 men on the Stangarth perish. Another candidate for this sinking is the Morosini.

USS Impulse, commissioned on 16 March 1942
"Commissioning of USS Impulse, formerly the British corvette HMS Begonia. 16 March 1942, Albert Dock." USS Impulse served with the US Navy until being returned to the Royal Navy in 1945. © IWM (A 7789).
Danish 1458-ton freighter Agnete (under German control) is bombed and sunk by RAF aircraft about eight miles northeast of Terschelling, the Netherlands. Casualties are not recorded.

German 2642-ton freighter Utlandshorn hits a mine and sinks in the waters off northern Norway (Grense Jakobselv). The ship apparently is supplying the German garrison at Pechenga. Casualties are not recorded.

German harbor defense vessel (patrol boat) HS-97 hits a mine and sinks near Dunkirk. No details on this one.

British 430-ton freighter Miriam Thomas collides with Admiralty Hospital Ship Vasna and sinks about 15 miles south of Chicken Rocks near Holyhead, UK. All eight men aboard perish.

Dutch 4539-ton freighter Alcyone hits a mine and sinks 18 miles off Green Point, Capetown, South Africa. The mine was laid by the Speybank, a captured ship being used by the Germans. There are 46 deaths.

British 4270-ton freighter Cressdene hits a mine and is severely damaged near Swansea, UK. It sinks while under tow on the 17th. Details are scarce on this ship.

Tanks in Halfaya Pass on 16 March 1942
"The gun turret of a Matilda tank that had been captured [by Axis forces] and concreted into position to be used as part of the defenses of Halfaya Pass, 16 March 1942. A Valentine tank passes by in the background." © IWM (E 9320).
Battle of the Mediterranean: The Royal Navy and RAF combine in an attack on the Italian E-boat base in Rhodes. This is Operation MF.8. Light cruisers HMS Dido and Euryalus and six destroyers bombard the island during the night of 15/16 March 1942.

Italian submarine Galatea uses its deck gun to sink a small sailing vessel off the Palestinian coast.

The situation on Malta is critical in certain vital areas that the Axis air forces have targeted. Ta Qali Airfield, in particular, is in trouble due to incessant bombing attacks. In addition, the field has to be modified for the use of new Spitfire squadrons. The island government sends out a request for volunteers to help with this work.

Royal Navy submarine HMS Ultimatum (P 32) arrives in Malta with 14 Italian survivors of its 14 March 1942 sinking of Italian submarine Ammiraglio Millo in the Ionian Sea off Punta (Cape) Stilo, Calabria, Italy. Commander Harrison of the Ultimatum makes a quick turnaround and departs for a new patrol on 17 March.

Dr. Seuss cartoon on 16 March 1942
Dr. Seuss cartoon from 16 March 1942. Image from Dr. Seuss Went to War (Mandeville Special Collections Library, UC San Diego).
Partisans:  Joseph Goebbels notes in his diary that:
The activity of the partisans has increased notably in recent weeks. They are conducting a well-organized guerilla war.
The Germans at the front are busy preparing "Operation Munich," an anti-partisan sweep set to begin on 19 March 1942. This is planned as a large-scale operation to include a special air detachment established Bobruisk on 14 March 1942. Another such mission in the same general area set to begin later in March 1942 is Operation Bamberg.

Anglo/US Relations: President Roosevelt cables Prime Minister Winston Churchill with an offer to send a large US Navy force ("two battleships, two cruisers, an aircraft carrier, and a squadron of destroyers") at homeland British bases such as Scapa Flow. He notes that recent tanker sinkings are "very disturbing." He promises that by 1 July 1942 "our mounting production of small escort vessels and planes will come fully into play."

Time magazine on 16 March 1942
Time magazine, 16 March 1942. The cover story, "The Viceroy of India." Cover credit: Ernest Hamlin Baker.
Anglo/Indian Relations: British Lord Privy Seal Sir Stafford Cripps departs from London to enter negotiations with Indian leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru who demand independence. He also will talk with Moslem League President Mohammed Ali Hinnah who wants a separate Pakistan. Cripps is an avowed socialist who is sent on missions like this regularly.

Anglo/Soviet Relations: The Soviet Ambassador to Great Britain repeats Joseph Stalin's repeated request that the western Allies open a second front in Europe.

Life magazine on 16 March 1942
Life magazine, 16 March 1942. Note that the soldier on the cover is wearing a World War I helmet.
US Military: Lt. General W.J. Slim departs India for Magwe, Burma, in order to establish the 1st Burma Corps. This is to include the 1st Burma Division, the 17th Indian Division, and the 7th Armored Brigade. All of these units have been battered during the retreat across Burma. This will become known as "Burcorps" after it is officially established on 19 March 1942.

The 39th Pursuit Squadron (Interceptor), 35th Pursuit Group (Interceptor), transfers from Ballarat to Mount Gambier with its P-39 fighters. The 64th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 43d Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrives at Sydney, Australia from the US with its B-17s. The 68th Pursuit Squadron (Interceptor), 58th Pursuit Group (Interceptor), arrives at Amberly Field, Australia from the US with its P-39s.

US Government: The Maritime Commission places orders for another 234 Liberty ships. These are generic freighters built according to a standard plan that prioritizes cheap parts and ease of construction. For instance, they use a 140-ton vertical triple expansion compound steam engine of obsolete design rather than modern steam engines because the latter type is more difficult to build and requires special tooling. Everybody, including President Roosevelt, makes fun of the Liberty ships and their ugly appearance, but they get the job done.

Weather map, morning of 16 March 1942
"The weather map from the morning of March 16th [1942] showed low pressure over central Oklahoma, with an associated warm front lifting northward across central Illinois. Temperatures were unseasonably warm across the area, rising into the mid to upper 70s by afternoon." National Weather Service.
Holocaust: The Germans deport about 1600 Jews from Lublin, Poland, to Belzec concentration camp. Belzec is an extermination camp that opened on 13 March 1942 and already an estimated 6000 people have been murdered there.

American Homefront: Powerful tornadoes hit the Central and Southern United States. States affected include Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Kentucky, Alabama, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Many of these areas do not usually get tornadoes, so they come as real shocks. The outbreak goes on for almost three full days, with 149 fatalities and 1312 injuries. On the Fujita scale, some of the tornadoes score the maximum rating of tornado damage, with costly property damage.

The Lacon F5 Tornado of 16 March 1942
The Lacon F5 Tornado of 16 March 1942.